Defining Culture Essential Questions: What is culture? How
Defining Culture Essential Questions: What is culture? How does it shape the way we see ourselves, others, and the world? Everyone Has Culture Worksheet Step 1 Introduce yourself Step 2 Take turns sharing info from worksheet Q. 1 - Were your responses to the questions exactly alike? Q. 2 - What differences did you find among responses? Q. 3 How can you explain the differences? Q. 4 Despite the differences, what are some things everyone shares? In your small group, list aspects of culture different elements that are true of culture Transportation Environment/ Geography Childcare Writing Language Art/Music/Dance Gender Food Architecture Education
History Traditions/Heritage Family CULTURE Attitudes/Behaviours Clothing/Fashion Values/Beliefs Faith/Religion Entertainment /Sport(s) Customs/Rituals Government Interdisciplinary Studies History Archaeology Ethnology Anthropology Paleopathology
CULTURAL STUDIES Gender Studies Philosophy Religious Studies Sciences Linguistics Geography Literature Psychology Economics What is culture? No easy answer.very hard to defineBut..we seem to know when we see it Reflection on Definitions of Culture Cultureis that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. Tyler (British anthropologist), 1870 Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their
embodiment in artifacts; the essential core consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other, as conditional elements of future action. Kroeber & Kluckhohn, 1952 Culture consists of the derivatives of experience, more or less organized, learned or created by individuals of a population, including those images or encodements and their interpretations (meanings) transmitted from past generations, from contemporaries, or formed by individuals themselves. Schwartz, 1992 Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. Hofstede, 1994 the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviours shared by a group of people, but different for each individual, communicated from one generation to the next. Matsumoto, 1996 Culture is a fuzzy set of basic assumptions and values, orientations to life, beliefs, policies, procedures and behavioural conventions that are shared by a group of people and that influence (but do not determine) each members behavior and his/her interpretations of the meaning of other peoples behavior. Spencer-Oatey, 2008 What is culture? Elements of culture that exist in all culture?
Culture has to do with values and beliefs Culture involves customs and traditions Culture is collective, shared by a group - dialectical Culture is learned Culture influences and shapes behavior Culture is transferred from generation to generation Culture is often unconscious were not even aware of it! People in all cultures have common needs Areas of Study Content Culture? Era? Civilization? Ethnocentricism West East Indigenous Cultural
Expression Language Art Music Dance Drama Food Literature Architecture Artifacts Materials Archetypes
Symbols Imagery Gender Conflict War Conquest Genocide Slavery Imperialism Colonialism Reform Rebellion Revolution Civil War
Diplomacy Systems of Power, Authority, & Governance Ideologies Laws Law-making Kingship Aristocracy Empire Tyranny Totalitarianism Democracy City-state Nation-State Constitutions Economics
Value and Belief Systems Religions Morals Philosophy Myths Legends Values Beliefs Ceremonies Rituals Festivals What is missing from this list?
Cultural Exchange Ideas Communications Technology Trade Disease Religion Peoples Prosperity Culture and the Natural Environment
Weather Climate Flora Fauna Disasters Economics Degradation Agriculture Resources Domestication In the Beginning Where do we begin? Human Evolution Prehuman? Primates
Hominids Homo erectus Homo sapiens Lucy (1974) Hadar, Ethiopia bipedal brain size=chimpanzee https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SPit_Mca8dM Pelvic structure=similar to modern woman Laetoli Plains, Tanzania (1978) Footprints 3.6 million years old Lake Turkana, Kenya (1984) Homo Erectus 12 yr-old boy (160cm) 1.6 million years old Low forehead, beetle brow similar to modern humans Fire - 1.4 million years ago? Hominids and Human Evolution The Inheritors? Ancestors of Homo Sapiens? Ramapithecus fossilized remains found in Africa, China, India, Europe Small ape-like; walked upright and had brain roughly size of humans earliest fossils date to 14 million years ago Australopithecines found mostly in southern Africa males stood 4 tall and were 100lbs; females smaller
apposite thumb, tool makers Homo Erectus fossils found in East Asia (mostly) 5 tall, heavier and larger cranial capacity better tool makers than Australopithecines Neanderthal fossils found in Europe (Neander Valley, Germany), N. Africa, Near East 53 tall, heavy, thickset muscular people often buried their dead with food, tools, weapons religious beliefs? Cro-Magnon Modern human? When a later group appeared, the earlier group disappeared. Why? Conquest? Evolution? Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age (2.5 million 11 500 yrs ago) Big game hunters and gatherers 20-60 people to a small band No cloth.clothing made of animal hides, vegetable matter Crude shelters
Tools made from wood, bone, CHIPPED stone Domesticated dogs Division of Labour Role of Women Searching for food seeds, berries, roots, grubs, insects, and other. Made baskets out of twigs, grass, protected the campsite, cared for infants, taught small children how to behave and on look out for danger Role of Men Preparing for the hunt..making, repairing spears, knives, etc. Not just muscular strength, endurance.but patience, cooperation After the hunt..dancing, singingrhythmic movements enforce solidarity Tools of the Old Stone Age Flaking of stone into sharp edge better kinds of tools as time passes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SrvPOkMs4U4 99% of human history is attributed to this sort of lifeat least 4/5ths of human history...but little history to show for it Prehistoric Beliefs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnSq0c7jM-A Lascaux Cave Art Southern France Circa 13000 BC Neolithic (New Stone) Age (15 000BC 4500 to 2000BC)
Tools made from wood, bone, GROUND or POLISHED stone Pottery is invented clay pots to cook, store or carry Humans learn to plait baskets, cure leather Hunter-Gatherers become Grain Farmers and Herders Agricultural Revolution Disadvantages Advantages steady food supply dependent on crops growing populations - failure=starvation organized societies diseases - prof. soldiers - from animals, humans, - managers - specialization of labour waste cant easily leave. Origins of Agriculture Fertile Crescent Middle East (Iraq to Egypt) wheat, barley, beans Slash-and-Burn Cultivation
Domestication of Animals 4000BC milk, an important new food animal hair, wool sheared and made into cloth animal strength for heavy loads Catal Huyuk, Turkey (c. 7000 BC) Stonehenge: Neolithic Village? Religious Site? Creation Myths Mythology? Are myths records of historical facts? Deliberate fictions? Ways of understanding incomprehensible events? .what do myths reveal? Combine? Literature Anthropology Sociology Psychology Religion Science
mythos Greek origins? A special kind of storywhat are we talking about, then? What characteristics do all myths possess? Interpretation many myths are very, very old..and there are many versions line between myth and religion is blurred.. the focus is on the story, rather than truth Modernitys influence on myth How do we view today (in this modern age) the power of myth? Creation Myths Ex Nihilo No time, no space..infinite nothingness In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Book of Genesis I am the eternal spirit, I am the sun that rose from the primeval waters. My soul is God, I am the creator of the word. Evil is my abomination, I se it not. The Creator of the order wherein I live, I am the word, which will never be annihilated. In this my name of Soul. Ancient Egyptian Creation Myth What commonalities do you observe in these two myth statements? Chaos the primal void or state of uniform non-differentiation that precedes the creation of the world in most creation stories the original gap between heaven and earth? Note: How do astronomers/scientists define the creation of the universe?
Stories of Creation all cultures have a creations story (or myth) explains origins - earth, the cosmos, humans, animals, plants symbolic stories. influences how cultures think about the world, treat it. early humans rationalized stories in regards to specific time (think: history); place (think: environment); and, culture (think: civilization) Themes? In your review of the origin stories from the textbook, did you notice commonalities between myths? myth Greek for story Origins are uncertain because they are anonymous, generated, perpetuated by cultures through oral traditions.. not intended to be recorded history of events But rather of a people, culture, of values and beliefs.. People have always been curious about their world. Myths are the answers to so many questions that came before the advent of modern scienceand still they resonate! Common Themes Elements of Origin Stories Birth Egg (see Lady Gaga..) Childbirth male or female gods give birth to children Mother Father Earth Mother
life emerges from the womb.see Lady Gaga Sky/Heaven Father Sense of unity? ..marriage? Genealogy first god born doesnt always create world.. often his/her children decided to fill world with life. Supreme Being(s) most cultures have pantheon of gods (polytheistic) some cultures revered a single creator (monotheistic) Earth-Diver Myths water-borne civilizations..River Valley? Animal/Human Relationship animals play key role. equal to humans? reflect importance of animals to culture Chaos worlds created out of a void.. An instruction, a sin, the consequence one or all three of these elements.. Creation of Humans created by a god or supreme being places humans among the supernatural hierarchy? Creation of Environment/ Geography / Non-humans How do myths explain our origins? And how do they explain our (the sexes) relationships with each other? Myths often focus on DUALITY.the contrast between two concepts Man v. Woman?
Story of Adam and Eve in the Book of Genesis? This is the bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh, she should be called woman, because she was taken out of man. Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife and they become one flesh. I will greatly multiply your pain in childbearing; in pain you should bring forth children, yet your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you. According to the Book of Genesis how is the natural relationship between a man and a woman defined? Pandora In Greek mythology, the first woman.. She was made from the Earth, on the command of Zeus, who was angry at Prometheus.. What was Pandoras box? What was in Pandoras box? Theme We owe a permanent debt, apparently.. original sin What do we mean by opening Pandoras box? Independent v. Cultural Diffusion Areas of Independent Development Middle East wheat, pea, olive, goat, sheep, cattle China rice, millet, pig Americas corn, beans, potato, llama Areas of Agriculture Thru Diffusion Europe West & Sub-Saharan Africa
Indus River Valley (rice cultivation) Problems of the Early Farmers Neolithic Fertility Goddess Relations with Herders Symbolism? herders discover they could attack & defeat farmers difficult to combine readiness with tasks of cultivation Not always hostile.trade and war exist simultaneously Measurement of Time When to plant? Mid East rain falls in winter months Keeping an accurate calendar? How much grain could a family afford to eat? How much for planting? Ritual experts keeping time the earliest priests? Shortage of Suitable Land Pop. Growth=land becomes scarcer Necessary to reuse abandoned fields (less fertile soil) Solution the plow (3000BC) kept down the weeds cultivates a far greater area allowed early farmers to keep same fields (turn soil keep fallow) Plow enables: Permanent settlement fixed patterns of ownership structure of village life taxation - Civilization? Origin Stories All cultures have a creation story Explains the origin of humans, earth,
animals, plants, and the other A reflection of a cultural worldview? Early humans invented stories which made sense in regard to specific time periods and culture Creation of Adam, Michelangelo (c. 1512) Focus Questions What are the characteristics of a creation myth? How do different cultures explain the beginning? What are the similarities and differences in creation myths from around the world? What unique cultural traits are revealed in the creation myths?
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