Clinical Trials and Research in Children Efficacy Considerations
Clinical Trials and Research in Children Efficacy Considerations and Innovative Approaches Pediatric Clinical Investigator Training Workshop Thursday February 28, 2019 Yodit Belew, MD Senior Medical Officer Division of Antiviral Products OAP/OND/CDER/FDA 1 Disclaimer The views expressed in this presentation are my own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Food and
Drug Administration. 2 Objectives Outline: o Introduction: efficacy trials and regulatory requirements for drug approval o Considerations for pediatric trials to establish efficacy o Closing the gap 3 Legal Requirement
what sponsors must show 4 Substantial Evidence how sponsors must show effectiveness o What constitutes sufficient evidence of effectiveness? Typically two adequate and well-controlled trials Independent substantiation of experimental results single clinical experiment not usually considered adequate scientific support for conclusion of effectiveness
One study may be adequate in certain circumstances (FDAMA 1997) Supportive/confirmatory evidence from other trials Large, multi-center study with statistically persuasive results 5 Drug Development and Clinical Trial Design Considerations: Pediatrics 6
General Principles o Pediatric patients should have access to drug products that have undergone appropriate evaluation for safety and efficacy. o Drug development programs should include pediatric studies when pediatric use is anticipated, as required by law (with few exceptions). o Ideally, initial product approval should be for both adult and pediatric indication, provided sufficient early safety/efficacy data and appropriate pediatric formulations are available to allow pediatric trial initiations. 7 Children are not Little Adults o Differences in Exposure
Size and surface area Developmental physiology, ontogeny o Organ growth Brain Lungs Renal Reproductive system
Skeletal o Physiological function Immune system CNS Endocrine 8 Principles of Pediatric Drug Development o
Drug development for treatment of a disease/condition that exists only in children Adequate and well-controlled trial o Drug Development for treatment of a disease/condition that exists in both adults and children For new drugs*, assessments of safety and efficacy are required for all relevant pediatric subpopulations [Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) (2003)] Trials must be adequate and well-controlled However, extrapolation allowed under limited circumstances
* PREA applies to new: active ingredient, indication, dosing regimen, dosage form, route of administration 9 Extrapolation of Efficacy Predicting behavior of a product in children based on data generated in adults Establish similarity in disease progression and response to intervention Common pathophysiology, natural history Similar trial efficacy endpoints
PD/biomarker endpoints Similarity in exposure response Data needed to support extrapolation 10 Summary o Sponsors legally required to demonstrate substantial evidence of efficacy prior to a drug approval o Adequate and well controlled trials needed to demonstrate substantial evidence of efficacy o Similar requirements apply for pediatric applications/indications
o Approach to pediatric trial design dependent on: disease similarity between adults and children, and similarity in response to interventions (e.g. endpoints) between the two population If similar, extrapolation of efficacy may be adequate If dissimilar, adequate and well controlled trial design may be required 11 Treatment of HIV(1) Extrapolation o Established are: Similar disease in adults and children Antivirals activity same regardless of population Primary endpoint (HIV RNA) applicable in both populations
o Therefore, if Phase 1, 2 trials completed in adults Required toxicology studies completed o Adolescent trial can be initiated along the Phase 3 adult clinical trial Rely on phase 1,2 safety/activity data to support prospect of direct benefit (PDB) Single arm design acceptable; PK pivotal data o Non-adolescent pediatric trial (e.g. 1 month to 12 years old) can be initiated once appropriate dosage forms are available Rely on phase 1, 2 safety/activity data to support PDB Single arm trial acceptable; PK pivotal data 12 Treatment of HIV(2)
Trial Design Considerations o Design and analysis (adult) Randomized active-controlled noninferiority trial Endpoint/analysis: proportion of subjects with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL at week 24 and/or 48 o Design and analysis (pediatric) Single arm study Sample size calculation for PK (primary endpoint): example prospectively powered to target a 95% CI within 60% and 140% of the point estimate for the geometric mean estimates of clearance and volume of distribution Final sample size should account for variability As data are evaluated, sample size must be increased as necessary for characterization of PK across the intended age/weight range Sample size calculation for safety
minimum of 100 across the age range (~ evenly distributed) Efficacy endpoint/Analysis proportion of subjects with HIV RNA <50 at Week 24 (secondary endpoint) Outcome compared to adult trials outcome to establish trend 13 Perceived Challenges Contributing to Delays in Initiation or Completion of Pediatric Clinical Trials 14 Reasons for Delays in Initiating or Completing Pediatric Trials
o Time gap in initial product approvals for adult vs. pediatric patients Gap significant for younger pediatric patients (e.g. <12 years old) o Reasons for delay may include: Challenges in identifying PD markers Smaller diseased population; difficult to enroll Awaiting for adult approval before initiating studies in pediatric subjects Staggered cohort enrollment of pediatric subjects Delay in pediatric-appropriate formulation development Different requirements by regulatory agencies 15 Proposed Approaches to Address
Challenges 1 2 3 4 Enroll adolescents during phase 3 clinical trials Enrollment of nonadolescent
cohorts in parallel Initiate pediatricappropriate formulation work by end of phase 2 EMA-FDA dialogues to align PIP/PSP 16 Collaborations Adapted from: Penazzato et al. J Int AIDS Soc, 2018, 21(S1)
17 Innovative Trial Designs 18 Alternative Trial Designs o Randomized withdrawal designs o Adaptive designs: phase 2/3 hybrid design o Adaptive design: Bayesian method Method of borrowing strength from previous studies (usually adult) to make inferences about pediatric population Similar to the extrapolation model: To extend information and conclusions available from studies (usually adults) to make
inferences for pediatric population 19 Use of Real world data and experience (RWD/RWE) No formal CDER guidance on use of RWD to generate evidence for regulatory support Examples: o RWD as a comparator arm; limited circumstances, e.g. rare diseases, oncology interventional trials Parallel assigned control arm not feasible or ethical Serious illness with no satisfactory treatment Large effect size based on preliminary data
o RWD supporting new dosing regimen: simeprevir/sofosbuvir for treatment of chronic HCV infection Single agents (simeprevir, sofosbuvir) approved for use in combination with other products HCV-target network: Research database with data abstracted from electronic medical records Initial approval of new combination based on evidence from a phase 2 trial, supplemented with safety and effectiveness data from HCV-TARGET Confirmatory trials conducted post approval of new regimen 20 RWD/RWE Limitations:
Data quality and reliability; access Bias (selection, recall, reporter, misclassification, etc.) Covariates influencing outcome of disease not well characterized Analytical methods Future Innovation Measures to ensure data quality, access, integrity Design and conduct to help reduce bias and balance underlying risk between treatment groups Analytical approaches to integrate data collected during clinical care with clinical trial data sources Statistical methodologies 21
Acknowledgments Debra Birnkrant Jeff Murray Lily Mulugeta James Travis 22
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