S T A P L E F O

S T A P L E F O

S T A P L E F O O D S F A C T S Staple foods are usually cereals. They grow well in a particular country and make up a big part of their diet as they are cheap to produce. They contain carbohydrate (for energy), B Vitamins (to release energy) and fibre (for a healthy digestive system). Wheat Rice Oats Maize/Corn Barley Grows in UK & is ground to make flour for cakes, bread, biscuits, pasta, cous cous & semolina. Pasta uses Durum Wheat as it is high in gluten. A grain of wheat If the whole grain is crushed it

produces wholegrain flour (or bread). The centre of the grain is used for white flour. It has less fibre. Wheat contains gluten, a protein which a Coeliac cannot have as it causes upset stomachs. This symbol means food is gluten free. Grows in a paddy (wet) field in Asia. Contains bacteria called Bacillus Cereus, which can produce a toxin when rice is repeatedly re-heated. This can lead to food poisoning. Served with curry, in risotto and also processed into rice crispies as a breakfast cereal. Other staples Potatoes root veg from UK for mash, roast, chips. Quinoa South American wheat free grain. Tapioca/arrowroot starches from root plants. Sago-Starch taken from a tropical plant stem. Grown in Scotland. Used in

porridge oats, oat biscuits, flapjack, animal feed. Grows in USA. Used to produce corn flour, corn on the cob as well as cornflakes. Bread Making.. Many cereals (especially wheat) are used to make bread. The following are also needed: Yeast an organism which makes bread rise by giving off CO2 gas when given warmth, food & moisture. Salt for flavour and to help develop the gluten. Gluten a protein in flour. It makes the dough stretchy and allows it to rise. Kneading the dough develops the gluten. Sugar to feed the yeast. Marg to keep it moist and prevent staling. Strong flour provides more gluten than plain flour. White bread is fortified. This means nutrients are added to replace those lost in processing (making). Calcium, iron

and thiamine (Vit B1) are added. This helps people get the essential nutrients in their diet. The Chorley Wood process is used in factories. It adds Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) and speeds up the bread making process, which is better for business. Used in brewing (beer & whisky), in cereal bars and for animal feed. Starch thickening. Corn and wheat flour are used to thicken soups and sauces. The starch grains swell when heated with liquid. As it boils the grains burst open and the mixture thickens. It cools into a gel. The process is called gelatinisation. The gel can leak water & spoil the food. Manufacturers use MODIFIED STARCH to stop this. Starch is modified by using heat or acid. Thickening sauces with starch

Corn and wheat flour contain s_________. The grains of starch swell up when h_________ with liquid. As it boils the grains burst open and the mixture t___________. It cools into a gel, which means it sets.. The process is called g_________________. A wheat grain The grain above is used to make flour. If the whole grain is crushed it produces w______________ flour (or bread). The centre of the grain is used for ____________ flour. It has less fibre. We need fibre for healthy d________________________ and to prevent c_____________________________ Gluten This is a p___________ in flour. It makes the bread dough stretchy and allows it to rise. K_________ the dough develops the gluten. 1. Fill in the missing words, using the ones below: gelatinisation wholegrain white digestive starch heated thickens

protein constipation kneading gluten sauce 4. Space to copy the bits you are unsure of: 2. Use a highlighter pen to highlight the parts here which you are most likely to forget. 3. In the box to the right, copy out the information you have highlighted. 5. Turn over and have a go at the revision questions 1. Draw and label the wheat grain. 2. What does flour contain, which makes it thicken a sauce? 3. Describe how a sauce thickens. 4. What is gluten? 5. Why is gluten useful in making bread? 6. What type of flour (and bread) contains the most fibre? 7. Why do we need fibre?

TURN OVER AND CHECK YOUR ANSWERS Objective Lessons 1 and 2 Learn about the bread making process CEREALS UNIT Hwk/ Resources Make dough for bread, naan, pitta or Chelsea buns. Pupils could make soda bread (only takes 1 lesson) Should not take whole hour pupils research dextrinization. IF STUDENTS HAVE WORK TO COMPLETE OR NEED TO DO A RE-TEST FROM PREVIOUS TOPIC, USE BREAD MAKER OR MAKE SODA BREAD TO RELEASE 1 SPARE LESSON! Make dough into a product. Pupils see dextrinization on crust of bread take photo of bread to stick in next to dextrinization definition. 3. Learn about the production of flour. ST How many cereals/STAPLES can you name? Think, pair, share. Dispel idea that cereals = breakfast! Pupils copy definition of staple foods from slide. Watch the wheat into flour video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wyhzKX97Vk (Make notes to help with homework) M P Wheat grain beetle drive (pupils in teams, each team needs worksheet each & 1 dice per team) Extension research Chorley wood process. Type it up this can be copied and a copy given to each pupil. 4. To learn about staple foods ST Explain Dextrinisation to pupils. They copy information/definition.

M Circuit of activities on tall tables in small teams 1. Match up activity (use cereal boxes, images & labels). Check if correct, copy info into books, move on 2. Use of food labels what nutrients are in cereal foods? (Use cereal boxes, rice, pasta, flour packets) 3. Pupils sieve granary flour & see difference between white, brown, wholemeal, granary & corn flour. Extension what is fortification and why is it done? 5. Learn the structure and function of gluten. Gluten investigation see experiment. Write up using worksheet. In teams of 4 while waiting for gluten balls to cook each has something to research and share: SEN find the gluten free symbol What is gluten and why is it useful? Coeliac disease. Alternatives for a coeliac. SHOW STUDENTS HOW TOLINE A XMAS CAKE TIN. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPJRIvTJHqU Put images in correct order to show the process of bread making from field to fork. SEN Use bread making at home one and more able use factory one. Ingredients and lined tin for Xmas cake for Objective 6. Apply the all in one creaming method.

CEREALS UNIT Hwk/ Resources Make Christmas cake (can be mini one in Sweetcorn tin) Extension Produce a visual map of the world, add each countries staple food. 7 Learn about gelatinisation with starch. ST - Demonstrate cheese sauce or video clip. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seLgqS2A_y0 (this is the all in one sauce, pupils could do a roux) M Use of diagrams to describe gelatinisation. P Dem of use of Modified starch Pre-gelatinised. Pupils make notes on modified starch from power point. Higher- pupils are given the correct order of starch thickening process and they research retrogradation. Research deficiency disorders: Pellagra & berri berri. Why we need it, what if we dont get it and what foods is it in? Ext add images. 8 Apply the process of gelatinisation in a sauce. Pasta or cauliflower in cheese sauce. Extension/Higher pupils make own pasta (tagliatelli/spaghetti using pasta maker OR research how pasta is coloured (green/red/black)

9 To learn the function of raising agents. ST - Theory of raising agents memory challenge. Could display on screen for few mins & pupils work alone/in pairs to reproduce the images and information. Or could be done in teams - they take it in turns to look at a print out of the poster for a minute, then go back and recreate until all team members have had a turn. How well did they do (see score out of 30) M Pupils remove their poster and aim to recreate the info into books. Self/peer assess P Dem marzipaning or video clip? http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/videos/techniques/how-marzipan-cake Bring a food packet/label to the next theory lesson. 10 Learn about the conditions required for yeast growth. Yeast investigation best conditions for growth. May need to complete work from last lesson while waiting for yeast to act (30 mins) Explain homework pupils could make a start on yeast research. Extension Problem solving with bread (see slide). Pupils watch video and write replies to the Problem page Worksheet on yeast, fungi and mould how it can spoil and how it is useful. SEN match up sheet TO DO! 11 Learn about Food Labelling

Legislation. ST/M Demonstration of icing Christmas cake. As you dem each pupil says a piece of info from a food label. Have a poster with 2 headings Legal/Extra. Pupils to say which heading their piece of information should go. Discuss each piece of information. See later slide with information on it. P Pupils stick food label into book. Annotate information 1 colour pen for legal, another colour for extra. Higher/Extension Can pupils add on any more extras? Why are they there? Who do they target/help? 12 Apply the melting method to make cakes. Brownie/Ginger cake melting method Research the following produce a set of fact sheets on each which can be displayed in the roon: Cous Cous/Semolina (00/pasta flour/Bulghur (Burghul) wheta/Sorghum/Quinoa/Arowroot/Sago/Tapioca 13 Learn about production, functions and structure of rice, Theory of rice, uses/types and how it is produced. See page 198-199 of Eduqas text book there will be a set of 6 copied on A3 and laminated. For each type of rice, suggest a recipe use of recipe books/magazines/internet. Pupils to produce rice fact sheet for RICE MARKETING BOARD Use ICT, Images, recipes. Extension include other staples barley, rye, quinoa, sorghum, arrowroot, tapioca, sago. Look at Bacillus cereus. Have a chart of bacteria (we will add more to this in the meat unit). One bacteria has been done add info for Bacillus cereus. Rest to be done later in the Meat/Fish/Egg topic.. 14Apply creative techniques. Ice Xmas cake Extension Pupils to produce a flow chart for one example of secondary processing for corn/maize (e.g. popcorn, cornflour, cornflakes) Can they find a video to illustrate this? Could be shared with the class.

15 TEST STAPLES. Ext if a couple of pupils finish early, they could make a loaf using breadmaker and see it next lesson. 16. Prepare dishes with rice. Rice pudding (pan or microwave) or sushi. Extension Pupils to produce a flow chart for one example of secondary processing for corn/maize (e.g. popcorn, cornflour, cornflakes) Can they find a video to illustrate this? Could be shared with the class. 17 START NEXT UNIT MEAT/FISH/EGGS 18 Apply coagulating & foaming properties of egg Lemon Meringue Pie GM production what is it, should we do it? Revise for Staple foods test. Wednesday 12th October Scone practical assessed. Friday 14th October Fruit and veg test Hwk to revise. Thursday 20th October make bread dough and leave to rise Friday 21st October use dough to make bread product of choice: Cobs

Plait/Twist Fun shapes With flavours Swirls From Field to fork making bread at home. Enlarge, laminate and cut up pupils arrange in correct order. Sow the seeds. Sieve the grain Sieve flour into types (wholemeal/ white). Harvest the grain.. Crush grain into flour From Field to fork making bread in a factory. Enlarge, laminate and cut up pupils arrange in correct order. Sow the seeds. Sieve the grain Sieve flour into types (wholemeal/ white). Harvest the grain.. Crush grain into flour STAPLE FOODS

Usually cereals. They are starchy (carbohydrate) & grow well in a particular country. They make up a big part of the diet. How many can you name? If starch is subjected to dry heat, it breaks down to form dextrins. This process is known as dextrinization. Dextrins are mainly brown in colour and dextrinization is partially responsible for the browning of toasted bread. It is a chemical reaction: which turns this: into this Challenge Where else do you see DEXTRINISATION? Wheat Corn Rice Wheat Oats Activity 1 Match up. Use real cereal boxes if available. Wheat grain Beetle Drive. Work in teams of 3 or 4. Each team will need a dice and each pupil will need a copy of the sheet See next slide for pupils to use. First to finish the grain = winner. Must get a 6 and sketch the wheat

grain, before you can start the rest! The Chorleywood process is able to use lower protein wheats to produce bread, this development has enabled more bread to be produced in the UK where our wheats dont normally have a high protein content. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) is added as a flour improver. Gluten investigation Method 1. In pairs, make dough with flour & water. 2. Knead it for 5 mins. 3. Wrap in muslin and rinse under tap until the starch has washed away. 4. Look at the remaining substance. 5. Bake in the oven (Gas 6, 190 deg. C until grown and golden). Missing words on next slide. Pupils research 1 aspect of gluten and information is shared. Write a conclusion using the following as a guide: Level 1-3 (Pupils have access to missing words) Level 4-6 Complete the sentences (no missing words) CONCLUSION 1.Dough stretches due to the .. 2 .Gluten is a: Carbohydrate/Protein/Fatchoose 1. 3.Some people are gluten intolerant, they called 4.The symptoms if they eat gluten are. 5.Gluten is found in. (name 3 foods)

6. The gluten free symbol looks like.. (draw it) 7. A person who cannot eat gluten can have ..instead (NAME 2) 8. The flour with the most/least gluten is . While the gluten balls are cooking, research 1 of the following: Draw the gluten free symbol What is gluten and why is it useful Coeliac disease. Alternatives for a coeliac. CHALLENGE - Level 7-9 Plan a meal with lots of gluten in it. Underline the foods which contain gluten. Level 1-3 missing words to choose from Gluten Starch Vegetarian Coeliac Cornflour Sickness Sneezing Rice Pasta

SR Flour Bread Fat Protein Strong (bread flour) Gluten Coeliac Disease Triggered by gluten (a protein in many cereals). It causes problems for the immune system & leads to: abdominal pain diarrhoea weight loss children not growing at the expected rate Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Foods high in gluten Wheat Rye Barley & any product containing these (flour, bread, pasta) Gluten free alternatives: Rice Corn Maize Potato

Soya Milllet These can be made into flour to replace wheat flour. Secure Cut up the sheet and pupils place into order. Challenge remove the speech bubbles and/or description. Pupils add them in correct places. Modified Starches Mechanical AIR is incorporated into a mixture, and hot air rises. Whisk & mix meringue & cakes. Memory challenge Chemical Carbon Dioxide (CO2) these ingredients produce of CO2 when heat and moisture are present: Bicarbonate of soda Baking powder SR Flour Sieve flour in cakes Folding and rolling puff pastry Rubbing - scones (SR flour is a correct mix of plain flour & Baking powder) Raising Agents there are 30 things to remember!! Physical STEAM is produced from the liquid in a recipe it has 1600 times the volume of water. It helps the following foods rise: Yorkshire pudding

Profiteroles Biological YEAST ferments to produce bubbles of Carbon Dioxide gas when mixed with moisture and oxygen. Memory challenge Mechanical 1 Chemical 7 2 AIR is incorporated into a mixture, and hot air rises. 8 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) these ingredients produce of CO2 3 Whisk & mix meringue & cakes. when heat and moisture are present: Bicarbonate of soda 9 Baking powder10 SR Flour 11 4 Sieve flour in cakes 5 Folding and rolling puff pastry 6 Rubbing - scones (SR flour is a correct mix of plain flour & Baking powder) 1 12 Raising Agents Score add the green numbers plus 12 for the images /30 Physical 13 14 STEAM produced from the liquid in a recipe it has 1600 times the volume of water. It helps the following foods rise: Yorkshire pudding 15 Profiteroles 16 Biological 17 18 YEAST ferments to produce bubbles of Carbon Dioxide gas

when mixed with moisture and oxygen. Link to video on bread making what went wrong? Students watch the video and use text books to write replies to Dear chef.. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpOn1qX5caE Watch video clip right to end and it recaps the main problems. Dear Chef. Dear chef..Help! Ive just got a new job as a baker at the local bakery store. My pastries are perfect and my cakes are cracking, but my bread is BAD!! The last loaves I made were too small and so heavy they could break your toes if you dropped them. What am I doing wrong? Dear chef Please help me. I want to apply to take part in the next series of the Great British Bake off. Most of my recipes go to plan, all except my bread. I mix it, I knead it, I prove it and shape it. All goes well until I bake it. It goes in the oven and starts off by rising. By the time it comes out of the oven its sunk? How can I solve this? Experiment could also be done in bags.

Yeast Investigation What are the best conditions for yeast to multiply? Hypothesis (Prediction): Draw how big you think the balloons will get for each sample. CHALLENGE Describe what you think will happen. Record below what you find out from the yeast experiment 1-3 I can investigate & record results. 4-5 I can describe what is happening and how the test was a fair one. Samples A B C D E 6-7 - I can conclude the best conditions for yeast to grow. 8-9 - I can apply this by suggesting other yeast recipes. Observations How much carbon dioxide has been produced? (How much has the balloon inflated?) Can you see air bubbles? A Warm water Sugar 10 mins

20 mins B Cold water Sugar 10 mins 20 mins C Boiling water Sugar 10 mins 20 mins D Warm water No sugar 10 mins 20 mins E No water Sugar 10 mins 20 mins

What is needed for yeast to perform? In bottle A Yeast, warm water & sugar In bottle B Yeast cold water & sugar In bottle C Yeast, boiling water & sugar In bottle D Yeast, warm water & no sugar In bottle E Yeast, sugar & no water FOOD MTH R A W MO ISTU RE Conclusion Describe what happened at 10 minutes and then 20 minutes.

Which sample produced the most Carbon Dioxide? How did you know this? Describe what you could see. How did you make the investigation a fair test? What are the best conditions for yeast to multiply? Use recipe books to find 4 yeast based products this would apply to. Stick photo of experiment here. CHALLENGE Annotate what happened. 1. On your sheet E should read No water, sugar 2. In your teams get everything ready, but do not start to mix until told to do so! 3. The measurements are 1 tsp yeast (level) and 2 tsps. water. If your team are adding sugar, add half a tsp. 4. In the first ten minute gap, stick all loose sheets into your book please. 5. In the next ten minute gap: improve the raising agent notes. make all other improvements/targets in book in green. Extension Table 1 & 2 research Chorley wood process. One person type it up, copy and share with each pupil. Extension Table 3 and 4 what is fortification and why is it done? Be prepared to share what you find with the class. 6. Watch the clip - marzipaning cake do at home. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/videos/techniques/how-marzipan-cake 7. Next practical cheese sauce, either Pasta in sauce or Cauliflower cheese. Take away 1 of these conditions and you are not going to have full fermentation or a production of carbon dioxide. So with cold water, it is too cold for the yeast to ferment. With the boiling water we have killed the yeast.

With the yeast, warm water & no sugar, we have not provided any food for the yeast. With no water we have not provided any moisture for the yeast. If one of the conditions that yeast needs to reproduce is unavailable fermentation does not take place. How to marzipan a cake: http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/videos/techniques/how-marzipan-cake Legal - what you must show name of the food best before or use by date warnings e.g. allergies - nuts, lactose, gluten etc. quantity information weight or number e.g 250ge the e symbol means estimated. Ingredients (more than 2) biggest first, descending order. the name & address of manufacturer, packer or seller Traceability code (if relevant) special storage conditions fridge, cool dry place etc. instructions for use or cooking, if necessary warning if it contains GM ingredients above 0.9%

a warning if the product has been radiated the words packaged in a protective atmosphere for MAP foods. Country of origin - for imported foods Extras you could show Image Bar code Nutritional info e.g. chart, traffic light symbols Serving suggestion Vegetarian information Offers, competitions. CHALLENGE Can you think of any more extras? Why are they included? Who does this information help? Food Labelling Legislation Stick your food label into your book. Annotate (label) the information. 1 colour for legal (must be there) 1 colour for extras. Research any special claims low fat, natural. What do they mean? Name of product Image or photograph CHALLENGE At the side of each piece of information, explain why it is needed. Is it for certain people? Why? Rice FACT SHEET 1-2 Types of rice 3-4 Uses 5-6 Where and How it is processed/produced

7-8 Nutritional benefits 9 Extra any from the following: diagrams why the nutrients are needed Alternative staples quinoa, semolina etc. Bacillus cereus Found in. Symptoms. Cooked rice Find out about this bacteria. Humans skin, nose, mouth, cuts, spots. Stomach cramp, vomiting. Other info Onset time. Salmonella Campylobacter Staphylococcus E.coli 1-6 hours Passed by food handlers (think staph/staff) Cereals/Staples Quiz

1. The rice for rice pudding is a) Short grain b) Long grain Cereals/Staples Quiz 1. The rice for rice pudding is a) Short grain b) Long grain 2. When pasta is cooked so it is still a bit firm it is called: c) Al dente d) Al bente 2. When pasta is cooked so it is still a bit firm it is called: c) Al dente d) Al bente 3. The food labelling system for nutrition is called: e) Traffic light system f) Red amber green system. 3. The food labelling system for nutrition is called: e) Traffic light system f) Red amber green system. 4. Thickening a sauce with starch is called: g) Gelatinisation h) Glutenisation 4. Thickening a sauce with starch is called: g) Gelatinisation h) Glutenisation 5. A white sauce is called:

i) Bchamel j) Roux 5. A white sauce is called: i) Bchamel j) Roux 6. Kneading dough makes it rise better by developing: k) The gluten l) The yeast 6. Kneading dough makes it rise better by developing: k) The gluten l) The yeast 7. The Chorleywood method speeds up bread making by adding: m) Vitamin C n) Vitamin B 7. The Chorleywood method speeds up bread making by adding: m) Vitamin C n) Vitamin B Commodities: Cereals test 1. a. The table below compares the nutritional value of both wholemeal bread and white bread. 2. Pasta is a popular staple food and is made of wheat flour. a. Give the name of the wheat type that is recommended when making pasta (1 mark) b. Pasta should be cooked to al dente. State what the term al dente means (1 mark) c. Lasagne uses bchamel sauce as a component of the dish. Explain what is happening during the sauce thickening process (4 marks) Wholemeal bread,

medium sliced White bread, medium sliced Per 100g Per 40g Per 100g Per 40g Energy 221Kcal 88Kcal 223Kcal 93Kcal Victoria sandwich Protein 10g 4g 8.7g 3.5g

White bread rolls Fat 1.8g 0.7g 1.7g 0.7g Jam tarts Carbohydrate 37.8g 15.1g 44.6g 17.9g Fibre 6.8g 2.7g 2.4g 1.0g

Salt 0.90g 0.36g 0.90g 0.36g Using the information given in the table, answer the following questions: i) ii) iii) Which bread has the most energy value per slice? Which bread type has the most protein content per 100g? State why 100g wholemeal bread has more fibre content than 100g white bread. (3 marks) b. Mass production of bread uses the Chorleywood method. Give two reasons why a large scale bakery uses the Chorleywood bread making process. (2 marks) c. Explain why kneading bread dough is an important process when making bread. (2 marks) d. A baker has produced a batch of bread rolls which are small and heavy. Give two reasons why this might have happened and suggest a way this can be avoided in the future. (4 marks) 3. a. Complete the table below stating the correct flour type used to make each product. (3 marks) Food product Type of flour used

b. Sandwiches are a popular lunchtime snack. Per pack Energy 253kcal Protein 10g Fat 4.5g Carbohydrate 36.6g Fibre 2.3g Salt 1.5g Use the nutritional information from the ham sandwich packaging to answer the following questions: i) The energy content for the pack is 253kcals, what is this as a percentage of the reference intake? (1 mark) ii) The protein content for the pack is 10g. State the main protein

source. (1 mark) iii) The salt content is 25% of the reference intake. What is the recommended daily salt intake, in grams for an adult? (1 mark) iv) The sandwich uses white bread and contains ham only. Suggest how the fibre content for the sandwich can be increased? (2 marks) v) Sandwiches are referred to as high risk foods. Give three good hygiene health and safety points to include when making fresh sandwiches. ( 3 marks) c. Food wastage in the UK is increasing. Suggest two ways in which bread wastage can be reduced. (2 marks) Total: /30 marks Commodities: Cereals test 1. a. The table below compares the nutritional value of both wholemeal bread and white bread. c. Explain why kneading bread dough is an important process when making bread. (2 marks)_______________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Wholemeal bread, medium sliced White bread, medium sliced Per 100g

Per 40g Per 100g Per 40g Energy 221Kcal 88Kcal 223Kcal 93Kcal Protein 10g 4g 8.7g 3.5g Fat 1.8g 0.7g 1.7g

0.7g Carbohydrate 37.8g 15.1g 44.6g 17.9g Fibre 6.8g 2.7g 2.4g 1.0g d. A baker has produced a batch of bread rolls which are small and heavy. Give two reasons why this might have happened and suggest a way this can be avoided in the future. (4 marks) __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

Salt 0.90g 0.36g 0.90g 0.36g 2. Pasta is a popular staple food and is made of wheat flour. Using the information given in the table, answer the following questions: i) Which bread has the most energy value per slice?_________________ ii) Which bread type has the most protein content per 100g?__________ iii) State why 100g wholemeal bread has more fibre content than 100g white bread______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________(3 marks) b. Mass production of bread uses the Chorleywood method. Give two reasons why a large scale bakery uses the Chorleywood bread making process. (2 marks)__________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

a. Give the name of the wheat type that is recommended when making pasta (1 mark)___________________ b. Pasta should be cooked to al dente. State what the term al dente means (1 mark)___________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ c. Lasagne uses bchamel sauce as a component of the dish. Explain what is happening during the sauce thickening process (4 marks)_____________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. a. Complete the table below stating the correct flour type used to make each product. (3 marks) Food product Type of flour used Victoria sandwich White bread rolls Jam tarts b. Sandwiches are a popular lunchtime snack. Per pack Energy 253kcal Protein

10g Fat 4.5g Carbohydrate 36.6g Fibre 2.3g Salt 1.5g Use the nutritional information from the ham sandwich packaging to answer the following questions: i) The energy content for the pack is 253kcals, what is this as a percentage of the reference intake? (1 mark)_________________________________________________________ ii) The protein content for the pack is 10g. State the main protein source. (1 mark) ______________________________________________________________________ iii) The salt content is 25% of the reference intake. What is the recommended daily salt intake, in grams for an adult? (1 mark) ______________________________________________________________________

iv) The sandwich uses white bread and contains ham only. Suggest how the fibre content for the sandwich can be increased? (2 marks) _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ v) Sandwiches are referred to as high risk foods. Give three good hygiene health and safety points to include when making fresh sandwiches. ( 3 marks) _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ c. Food wastage in the UK is increasing. Suggest two ways in which bread wastage can be reduced. (2 marks) _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Total:

/30 marks Commodities: Cereals test 1. a. The table below compares the nutritional value of both wholemeal bread and white bread. Wholemeal bread, White bread, medium medium sliced sliced Per 100g Per 40g Per 100g Per 40g Energy 221Kcal 88Kcal 223Kcal 93Kcal Protein 10g 4g 8.7g

3.5g Fat 1.8g 0.7g 1.7g 0.7g Carbohydrate 37.8g 15.1g 44.6g 17.9g Fibre 6.8g 2.7g 2.4g 1.0g Salt

0.90g 0.36g 0.90g 0.36g Using the information given in the table, answer the following questions: i) Which bread has the most energy value per slice? White bread ii) Which bread type has the most protein content per 100g? Wholemeal bread iii) State why 100g wholemeal bread has more fibre content than 100g white bread. (3 marks) it contains the bran and the germ, which is where the fibre is found. b. Mass production of bread uses the Chorleywood method. Give two reasons why a large scale bakery uses the Chorleywood bread making process. (2 marks) can use flour with a lower protein content, and it is faster than the bulk fermentation method c. Explain why kneading bread dough is an important process when making bread. (2 marks) the more you knead the more elastic the dough will be. The more you knead the more gluten (protein) will be developed (gives the bread structure) d. A baker has produced a batch of bread rolls which are small and heavy. Give two reasons why this might have happened and suggest a way this can be avoided in the future. (4 marks) yeast not active enough, not enough C02, not enough liquid produced, proving time too short, protein content too low 2. Pasta is a popular staple food and is made of wheat flour. a. Give the name of the wheat type that is recommended when making pasta (1 mark) Durum wheat b. Pasta should be cooked to al dente. State what the term al dente means (1 mark) to the tooth/ slight bite c. Lasagne uses bchamel sauce as a component of the dish. Explain what is happening during the sauce thickening process (4 marks) Roux consists of equal quantities of fat and flour. When the fat has melted, the flour is added. The melted fat coats the starch granules. The mixture cooked over a low heat. Some starch will gelatinise, but most will remain uncooked. The starch will form a

suspension until the sauce is returned. Constantly stir to avoid lumps forming. As the temp rises, the fat melts and is absorbed by starch. The starch swells as it takes up milk. As sauce comes to boiling the starch gelatinises, causing mixture to thicken, become smooth, glossy and lump free. A gel is formed Food product Type of flour used 3. a. Complete the table below stating the correct Victoria sandwich Self raising flour type used to make each product. (3 marks) White bread rolls Strong plain white flour b. Sandwiches are a popular lunchtime snack. Per pack Energy 253kcal Protein 10g Fat 4.5g Carbohydrate 36.6g Fibre 2.3g Salt

1.5g Jam tarts Plain flour Use the nutritional information from the ham sandwich packaging to answer the following questions: i) The energy content for the pack is 253kcals, what is this as a percentage of the reference intake? (1 mark) 13% ii) The protein content for the pack is 10g. State the main protein source. (1 mark) Ham iii) The salt content is 25% of the reference intake. What is the recommended daily salt intake, in grams for an adult? (1 mark) 6g iv) The sandwich uses white bread and contains ham only. Suggest how the fibre content for the sandwich can be increased? (2 marks) wholemeal bread or similar fibre, salad, veg, spinach, tomato, cucumber, onion v) Sandwiches are referred to as high risk foods. Give three good hygiene health and safety points to include when making fresh sandwiches. ( 3 marks) rotate stock, FIFO, ensure clearly labelled, use by dates, hair covered, wash hands, no chewing gum, PPI, gloves etc. c. Food wastage in the UK is increasing. Suggest two ways in which bread wastage can be reduced. (2 marks) freeze it, use as breadcrumbs, , toast it, bread and butter pud, croutons, brown bread ice cream Using the information given in the table, answer the following questions: i) Which bread has the most energy value per slice? White bread ii) Which bread type has the most protein content per 100g? Wholemeal bread iii) State why 100g wholemeal bread has more fibre content than 100g white bread. (3 marks) it contains the bran and the germ, which is where the fibre is found. b. Mass production of bread uses the Chorleywood method. Give two reasons why a large scale bakery uses the Chorleywood bread making process. (2 marks) can use flour with a

lower protein content, and it is faster than the bulk fermentation method c. Explain why kneading bread dough is an important process when making bread. (2 marks) the more you knead the more elastic the dough will be. The more you knead the more gluten (protein) will be developed (gives the bread structure) d. A baker has produced a batch of bread rolls which are small and heavy. Give two reasons why this might have happened and suggest a way this can be avoided in the future. (4 marks) yeast not active enough, not enough C02, not enough liquid produced, proving time too short, protein content too low 2. Pasta is a popular staple food and is made of wheat flour. a. Give the name of the wheat type that is recommended when making pasta (1 mark) Durum wheat b. Pasta should be cooked to al dente. State what the term al dente means (1 mark) to the tooth/ slight bite c. Lasagne uses bchamel sauce as a component of the dish. Explain what is happening during the sauce thickening process (4 marks) Roux consists of equal quantities of fat and flour. When the fat has melted, the flour is added. The melted fat coats the starch granules. The mixture cooked over a low heat. Some starch will gelatinise, but most will remain uncooked. The starch will form a suspension until the sauce is returned. Constantly stir to avoid lumps forming. As the temp rises, the fat melts and is absorbed by starch. The starch swells as it takes up milk. As sauce comes to boiling the starch gelatinises, causing mixture to thicken, become smooth, glossy and lump free. A gel is formed 3. a. Complete the table below stating the correct flour type used to make each product. (3 marks) Commodities: Cereals Re- test 1. Mass production of bread uses the Chorleywood method. Give two reasons why a large scale bakery uses the Chorleywood bread making process. (2 marks) 2. Explain why kneading bread dough is an important process when making bread. (2 marks) 3. What is added to a cheese sauce to make it thicken? (1 mark) 4. Explain what is happening during the sauce thickening process (3 marks) 5. Suggest a use for each of the following types of flour (3 marks) Type of flour used

Food product Strong flour Self Raising Flour Plain flour 6. Choose the correct answer. Gluten is a type of a) Protein b) Fat c) Carbohydrate. 7. Your friend offers you the choice of wholegrain or white bread for a sandwich. Which would be the healthiest option and why? (3 marks) TOTAL /15 marks 1. Mass production of bread uses the Chorleywood method. Give two reasons why a large scale bakery uses the Chorleywood bread making process. (2 marks) 2. Explain why kneading bread dough is an important process when making bread. (2 marks) 3. What is added to a cheese sauce to make it thicken? (1 mark) 4. Explain what is happening during the sauce thickening process (3 marks) 5. Suggest a use for each of the following types of flour (3 marks) Type of flour used Food product Strong flour Self Raising Flour Plain flour 6. Choose the correct answer. Gluten is a type of

a) Protein b) Fat c) Carbohydrate. 7. Your friend offers you the choice of wholegrain or white bread for a sandwich. Which would be the healthiest option and why? (3 marks) TOTAL /15 marks Commodities: Cereals Re- test Name _________ 1. Mass production of bread uses the Chorleywood method. Give two reasons why a large scale bakery uses the Chorleywood bread making process. (2 marks)____________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 2. Explain why kneading bread dough is an important process when making bread. (2 marks) _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 3. What is added to a cheese sauce to make it thicken? (1 mark) ______________________________ 4. Explain what is happening during the sauce thickening process (3 marks) _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

5. Suggest a use for each of the following types of flour (3 marks) Type of flour used Food product Strong flour Self Raising Flour Plain flour 6. Choose the correct answer. Gluten is a type of a) Protein b) Fat c) Carbohydrate. 7. Your friend offers you a choice of wholegrain or white bread for a sandwich. Which would be healthiest and why? (3 marks) _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________TOTAL /15 marks Re-test revision help sheet Thickening sauces with starch Corn and wheat flour contain s_________. The grains of starch swell up when h_________ with liquid. As it boils the grains burst open and the mixture t___________. It cools into a gel, which means it sets.. The process is called g_________________. A wheat grain The grain above is used to make flour. If the whole

grain is crushed it produces w______________ flour (or bread). The centre of the grain is used for ____________ flour. It has less fibre. We need fibre for healthy d________________________ and to prevent c_____________________________ Gluten This is a p___________ in flour. It makes the bread dough stretchy and allows it to rise. K_________ the dough develops the gluten. 1. Fill in the missing words, using the ones below: gelatinisation wholegrain white digestive starch heated thickens protein constipation kneading gluten

sauce 4. Space to copy the bits you are unsure of: 2. Use a highlighter pen to highlight the parts here which you are most likely to forget. 3. In the box to the right, copy out the information you have highlighted. 5. Turn over and have a go at the revision questions 1. Draw and label the wheat grain. 2. What does flour contain, which makes it thicken a sauce? 3. Describe how a sauce thickens. 4. What is gluten? 5. Why is gluten useful in making bread? 6. What type of flour (and bread) contains the most fibre? 7. Why do we need fibre? TURN OVER AND CHECK YOUR ANSWERS Cereals test. Page 210

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