Chapter 6 Classification Scientific name Heirarchy Taxonomic theory
Chapter 6 Classification Scientific name Heirarchy Taxonomic theory Nutrition Autotroph vs heterotroph Cell types prokaryote, plant, animal Domain and Kingdom overview Classification on
putting organisms into groups based similarities and differences groups are called taxa (sing. taxon) study of how groups are organized is called: Taxonomy Taxonomy Use Latin Doesnt change Everyone speaks it
Taxonomy Example: Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae fusco, pedibus posteuis, glabris, utrinque margine ciliatis Bee with soft short hairs, gray chest, dark brown abdomen, legs with no hair, and small sacs with hair-like outgrowths along the edge picture of honey bee Bee with soft short hairs, gray chest, dark brown abdomen, legs with no hair, and small sacs with hair-like outgrowths along the edge
Carl von Linn Binomial nomenclature: Two-part scientific name Genus and species Carolus Linneaus type specimens in museums (species dont change) Example: Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae fusco, pedibus posteuis, glabris, utrinque margine ciliatis
Apis mellifera Binomial nomenclature Genus capitalized species not capitalized Both italicized or underlined Scientific
name: ommon name: Apis mellifera honey bee Taxonomy: Hierarchy Butwhat is a species? A group of reproductively isolated organisms an example:
3 (Archeae, Bacteria, Eukarya) Kingdom A group of related phyla Phylum A group of related classes Class A group of related orders Order
A group of related families Family A group of related genera Genus A group of related species species Reproductively isolated organisms specific
Taxonomy: Hierarchy Domain Kingdom Kings Phylum Play Class Chess
Order On Family Fine Genus Green species
sand fig 6-1 Taxonomy: Hierarchy general Domain Eukarya Kingdo
Animalia m Chordata Phylum Mammalia Homo sapiens Class
Primate H. sapiens Order Hominidae human Family Homo
Genus sapiens specific Taxonomic theory How do you decide who goes into what group? Look at characteristics Try to figure out which are the most important Taxonomy An Exercise
Taxonomy Shape ? 5 Color ? 4 Size ? 3
?? parsimony the simplest explanation Taxonomy An Exercise A B ? ?
? C C Taxonomic theory How do you decide who goes into what group? birds, fishes, roses, insects, . . . based on similarities and differences molecular biology (DNA etc) anatomy,
Taxonomic theory How do you decide who goes into what group? Describe evolutionary relationships Looking at descendents A group with a common ancestor would be a clade (Greek, branch) Study of groups and ancestry is cladistics fig 5-1 box 6-1
box 6-2 One of the main characteristics we use to divide organisms into different groups is: cell type prokaryotic eukaryotic before nucleus true nucleus
box 6-2 pg. 171 Another question is: nutrition Nutrition: Where does an organism get its energy? (glucose) Some organisms are self-feeding autotrophic:hemosynthetic Photosynthetic
Sunlight (energy) + CO2 + H2O ----Glucose + O2 Chemosynthetic Nutrition: Where does an organism get its energy? (glucose) Some organisms are other-feeding heterotrophic: Cellular respiration (includes Krebs cycle): Glucose + O2 ----CO2 + H2O + ATP (energy) Nutrition: Where does an organism get its energy?
(glucose) Some organisms are other-feeding heterotrophic: digestion outside Absorptive heterotroph inside Ingestive heterotroph Possible origin of three cell types:
fig 6-2 Prokaryotic organisms all are unicellular Eukaryotic organisms some are unicellular others are multicellular Reproduction
asexual reproduction genetic uniformity sexual reproduction genetic diversity (advantage with natural selection) History 1800 3 kingdoms: animal, mineral or vegetable ? 02 Biology - animal and plant kingdoms
Lamarck 63 5 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Anima 06 6 kingdoms with three domains fig 6-3 6 kingdoms and three domains
Archaea (kingdom and domain) aka., Archaebacteria prokaryotic, unicellular Live in special environments (cow gut, thermal vents, hot springs) (many are chemosynthetic) 6 kingdoms and three domains Eubacteria (kingdom and domain) common bacteria
blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria) prokaryotic, unicellular (may live in colonies) many cell shapes rod, spheres, spirals many cell arrangements single, chains, clusters fig 6-4 spheres: coccus rods:
staphlo- endospores 6 kingdoms and three domains Eubacteria (kingdom and domain) common bacteria blue-green bacterial (cyanobacteria) prokaryotic, unicellular (may live in colonies) many cell shapes rod, spheres, spirals many cell arrangements single, chains, clusters different cell walls
fig 6-4 l tog r e h et g n i
iv Symbiosis: Living together Bacteria Humans benefit neutral commensalistic
benefit benefit mutualistic benefit harmed parasitic type of symbiosis skin
E. coli Mycobacteriu m tuberculosis bacteria and humans Many can cause diseases: pneumonia, STD, TB, anthrax, strep, etc., . . . But many are beneficial: decompose dead material (recycle chemicals) food production: butter, cheese, coffee
nitrogen fixation: genetic engineering: Third domain Eukarya (Eucarya) Contains four kingdoms Domain (kingdom) (kingdom) Domain fig 6-3
Domain: Eukarya all eukaryotic cells (cell type) Four Kingdoms: (cell arrangement) (nutrition) Protista unicellular
all types* Plantae multicellular* photosynthetic Mycota (Fungi) multicellular absorptive hetero-
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