Chapter 6 Classification Scientific name Heirarchy Taxonomic theory

Chapter 6 Classification Scientific name Heirarchy Taxonomic theory

Chapter 6 Classification Scientific name Heirarchy Taxonomic theory Nutrition Autotroph vs heterotroph Cell types prokaryote, plant, animal Domain and Kingdom overview Classification on

putting organisms into groups based similarities and differences groups are called taxa (sing. taxon) study of how groups are organized is called: Taxonomy Taxonomy Use Latin Doesnt change Everyone speaks it

Taxonomy Example: Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae fusco, pedibus posteuis, glabris, utrinque margine ciliatis Bee with soft short hairs, gray chest, dark brown abdomen, legs with no hair, and small sacs with hair-like outgrowths along the edge picture of honey bee Bee with soft short hairs, gray chest, dark brown abdomen, legs with no hair, and small sacs with hair-like outgrowths along the edge

Carl von Linn Binomial nomenclature: Two-part scientific name Genus and species Carolus Linneaus type specimens in museums (species dont change) Example: Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae fusco, pedibus posteuis, glabris, utrinque margine ciliatis

Apis mellifera Binomial nomenclature Genus capitalized species not capitalized Both italicized or underlined Scientific

name: ommon name: Apis mellifera honey bee Taxonomy: Hierarchy Butwhat is a species? A group of reproductively isolated organisms an example:

Equus equus 62 chromosomes Equus asinus 64 chromosomes Equus hemionus ? chromosomes Taxonomy:: Hierarchy Hierarchy general Domain

3 (Archeae, Bacteria, Eukarya) Kingdom A group of related phyla Phylum A group of related classes Class A group of related orders Order

A group of related families Family A group of related genera Genus A group of related species species Reproductively isolated organisms specific

Taxonomy: Hierarchy Domain Kingdom Kings Phylum Play Class Chess

Order On Family Fine Genus Green species

sand fig 6-1 Taxonomy: Hierarchy general Domain Eukarya Kingdo

Animalia m Chordata Phylum Mammalia Homo sapiens Class

Primate H. sapiens Order Hominidae human Family Homo

Genus sapiens specific Taxonomic theory How do you decide who goes into what group? Look at characteristics Try to figure out which are the most important Taxonomy An Exercise

Taxonomy Shape ? 5 Color ? 4 Size ? 3

?? parsimony the simplest explanation Taxonomy An Exercise A B ? ?

? C C Taxonomic theory How do you decide who goes into what group? birds, fishes, roses, insects, . . . based on similarities and differences molecular biology (DNA etc) anatomy,

Taxonomic theory How do you decide who goes into what group? Describe evolutionary relationships Looking at descendents A group with a common ancestor would be a clade (Greek, branch) Study of groups and ancestry is cladistics fig 5-1 box 6-1

box 6-2 One of the main characteristics we use to divide organisms into different groups is: cell type prokaryotic eukaryotic before nucleus true nucleus

box 6-2 pg. 171 Another question is: nutrition Nutrition: Where does an organism get its energy? (glucose) Some organisms are self-feeding autotrophic:hemosynthetic Photosynthetic

Sunlight (energy) + CO2 + H2O ----Glucose + O2 Chemosynthetic Nutrition: Where does an organism get its energy? (glucose) Some organisms are other-feeding heterotrophic: Cellular respiration (includes Krebs cycle): Glucose + O2 ----CO2 + H2O + ATP (energy) Nutrition: Where does an organism get its energy?

(glucose) Some organisms are other-feeding heterotrophic: digestion outside Absorptive heterotroph inside Ingestive heterotroph Possible origin of three cell types:

fig 6-2 Prokaryotic organisms all are unicellular Eukaryotic organisms some are unicellular others are multicellular Reproduction

asexual reproduction genetic uniformity sexual reproduction genetic diversity (advantage with natural selection) History 1800 3 kingdoms: animal, mineral or vegetable ? 02 Biology - animal and plant kingdoms

Lamarck 63 5 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Anima 06 6 kingdoms with three domains fig 6-3 6 kingdoms and three domains

Archaea (kingdom and domain) aka., Archaebacteria prokaryotic, unicellular Live in special environments (cow gut, thermal vents, hot springs) (many are chemosynthetic) 6 kingdoms and three domains Eubacteria (kingdom and domain) common bacteria

blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria) prokaryotic, unicellular (may live in colonies) many cell shapes rod, spheres, spirals many cell arrangements single, chains, clusters fig 6-4 spheres: coccus rods:

bacillus spirals spirochete two: diplofour: tetrads chains: strepto- clusters:

staphlo- endospores 6 kingdoms and three domains Eubacteria (kingdom and domain) common bacteria blue-green bacterial (cyanobacteria) prokaryotic, unicellular (may live in colonies) many cell shapes rod, spheres, spirals many cell arrangements single, chains, clusters different cell walls

fig 6-4 l tog r e h et g n i

iv Symbiosis: Living together Bacteria Humans benefit neutral commensalistic

benefit benefit mutualistic benefit harmed parasitic type of symbiosis skin

E. coli Mycobacteriu m tuberculosis bacteria and humans Many can cause diseases: pneumonia, STD, TB, anthrax, strep, etc., . . . But many are beneficial: decompose dead material (recycle chemicals) food production: butter, cheese, coffee

nitrogen fixation: genetic engineering: Third domain Eukarya (Eucarya) Contains four kingdoms Domain (kingdom) (kingdom) Domain fig 6-3

Domain: Eukarya all eukaryotic cells (cell type) Four Kingdoms: (cell arrangement) (nutrition) Protista unicellular

all types* Plantae multicellular* photosynthetic Mycota (Fungi) multicellular absorptive hetero-

Animalia multicellular ingestive hetero- Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Single-celled (eukaryotic) organisms Protozoa ingestive heterotrophs

(Gr. early animals) Movement: pseudopod Amoeba cilia Paramecium, Tetrahymena flagellum Trypanosoma

none Plasmodium Algae (photosynthetic) Euglena (sleeping sickness) (malaria) (plant kingdom) fig 6-5

Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Single-celled (eukaryotic) organisms Protozoa ingestive heterotrophs (G. early animals Algae photosynthetic Euglena

(plant kingdom?) Algae Euglena cell membrane chloroplasts Algae red tide cell membrane chloroplasts

Algae red tide cell membrane diatoms chloroplasts Algae red tide cell membrane

diatoms seaweeds fig 6-6 chloroplasts Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae benefits: food/O2 fiber wood/paper

coal medicines Domain Eukarya Kingdom Mycota (fungi) the decomposers eukaryotic cells absorptive heterotrophs hyphae long , thin cylinders of cytoplasm Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Mycota (fungi) the decomposers eukaryotic cells absorptive heterotrophs hyphae long , thin cylinders of cytoplasm hyphae form a mycelium Domain Eukarya Kingdom Mycota (fungi) the decomposers

eukaryotic cells absorptive heterotrophs hyphae spores dispersal fig 6-12 Morel fig 6-12 Rhizopus fig 6-12 Amanita

Atheletes foot Domain Eukarya Kingdom Mycota (fungi) benefits/harms food diseases (human, plant) decompose waste SOME REVIEW/PERSPECTIVE Chapter 6 Taxonomy

A. Hierarchy scientific name: Domain binomial, Latin Kingdom commom name

Phylum Class Order Family Genus species B. Taxonomic Theory different groups (taxa) cladistics anatomical / molecular /evolutionary relationships

C. Different Cell types Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Animal Plant Table of comparison (pg 171) D. Different nutritions Autotrophic vs. heterotrophic Ingestive vs. absorptive

Cellular respiration vs. photosynthesis Glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP (energy) Sunlight energy + CO2 + H2O Glucose + O2 E.

Three domains: Six Kingdoms Archaea Archaea Eubacteria Eubacteria Eukarya Protista Plantae Mycota Animalia

Make a table showing major differences F. G. Archaea Bacteria that live in unusual environments Eubacteria common bacteria different shapes/arrangements/cell walls symbiosis (examples) benefit/ harm

H. Protista Single cell eukaryotic Protozoa grouped by locomotion Amoeba, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Euglena (red tides, diatoms, seaweeds) Mycota (Fungi) Eukaryotic cells, hyphae Absorptive heterotrophs (the decomposers) Examples/Benefits/Harms Domain Eukarya

K. Kingdom Animalia eukaryotic cells, multicellular ingestive heterotrophs consumers lots of diversity symmetry digestive system layers cavities cephalization, embryo, organization, segmentation

Animalia Phylum Annelida Arthopoda Chordata Cnidaria Echinodermata Mollusca Nematoda Platyhelminthes Porifera Animalia Phylum

Annelida Arthopoda Chordata Cnidaria Echinodermata Mollusca Nematoda Platyhelminthes Porifera Feature: Seg. worms

Round worms Flat worms Feature: Seg. worms Round worms Flat worms * ID #

body cavity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 yes

yes yes none yes yes false none none ** ID # layers

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 3 3

2 3 3 3 3 none cephalization yes yes yes yes no

no no some no ** organization organ systems organ systems organ systems tissues organ systems

organ systems organ systems organ systems cellular ** * digestive plan embryo type

tube tube tube sac tube tube tube sac sac protostome protostome deuterostome

deuterostome protostome - segmentation yes yes yes no ?? no no no

no * symmetry bilateral bilateral bilateral raidal biradial bilateral bilateral bilateral

asymmetry ID # 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Chordates

amphibians birds bony fish cartilagenous fish jawless fish mammals reptiles ____-blooded # of heart chambers gas

exchange skeleton Jaws cold warm cold cold cold warm cold

3 4 2 2 2 4 3(4) gills/lungs lungs gills gills gills lungs

lungs bony bony bony cartilage cartilage bony bony yes yes yes yes

none yes yes Annelida: Fig 30.14 Earthworms Other Annelids leeches clam worms Annelida:

Fig. 30A leeches Arthropod: Fig 30.19 diversity July 2003 Great Smokies, TN Chordata:

FIG 6-18 Amphibians Chordata: FIG 6-18 Birds Chordata: FIG 6-18

Bony fish Chordata: Cartilagenous fish sharks Chordata: Cartilagenous fish skates

Chordata: Cartilagenous fish skates Chordata: Cartilagenous fish rays Chordata:

Jawless fish lampre y no jaws jaws Chordata: Jawless fish Chordata:

lampre y Jawless fish Chordata: Mammals Sub-class: duckbill platypus monotremes

spiny anteater Chordata: Mammals Sub-class: marsupials koala bear kangaroo

opposum Chordata: Mammals Sub-class: placentals July 2003 Great Smokies, TN Chordata:

Reptiles Chordata: Reptiles Chordata: Reptiles Chordata: Reptiles

Cnidaria sea anenome Cnidaria Hydra Cnidaria jellyfish Cnidaria coral Cnidaria

Echinodermata Examples: sea star Echinodermata Examples: sea star sea urchin Echinodermata Examples: sea star sea urchin

sand dollar Echinodermata Examples: sea star sea urchin sand dollar sea cucumber Mollusca diversity Mollusca

diversity Nematoda (Roundworms) Nematoda (Roundworms) Acaris Fig 30.9 Nematoda (Roundworms) Trichinella pork

Fig 30.9 Nematoda (Roundworms) Filarial worm elephantiasis Fig 30.9 Nematoda (Roundworms) Filarial worm elephantiasis

Fig 30.9 Platyhelminthes: (flatworms) Platyhelminthes: Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms) (flatworms) Three classes: Free living: Parasitic:

planarians flukes tapeworms Porifera (Sponges) Animalia Phylum Annelida Arthopoda Chordata Cnidaria

Echinodermata Mollusca Nematoda Platyhelminthes Porifera Feature: ID # ** body cephalization

cavity Seg. worms "jointed legs" "vertebrates" stinging cells "spiny skin" soft bodies Round worms Flat worms sponges 1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 yes yes yes none yes yes

false none none yes yes yes yes no no no some no

** * digestive plan embryo type tube tube tube sac

tube tube tube sac sac protostome protostome deuterostome deuterostome protostome - Make a tree with groups, subgroups, etc., with

simple on bottom, more complex as you move up * ** ** Animalia Feature: ID # layers organization segmentation symmetry Phylum Annelida Arthopoda Chordata

Cnidaria Echinodermata Mollusca Nematoda Platyhelminthes Porifera Seg. worms "jointed legs" "vertebrates" stinging cells "spiny skin" soft bodies Round worms

Flat worms sponges 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3

3 3 2 3 3 3 3 none organ systems organ systems organ systems tissues organ systems

organ systems organ systems organ systems cellular yes yes yes no ?? no no no no

bilateral bilateral bilateral raidal biradial bilateral bilateral bilateral asymmetry Draw a diagram showing relationships between different groups (similar groups should be

close together) E B D C F A ID #

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Chordates amphibians birds bony fish cartilagenous fish

jawless fish mammals reptiles ____-blooded # of heart chambers gas exchange skeleton

Jaws cold warm cold cold cold warm cold 3 4 2 2

2 4 3(4) gills/lungs lungs gills gills gills lungs lungs bony bony

bony cartilage cartilage bony bony yes yes yes yes none yes yes

2 Arthropoda 3 Chordates 5 Echinoderms 3 Annelida 6 Mollusca 7 Nematoda 8 Flatworms 4 Cnidaria 9 Sponges ID #

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Chordates amphibians birds bony fish

cartilagenous fish jawless fish mammals reptiles ____-blooded # of heart chambers gas exchange skeleton

Jaws cold warm cold cold cold warm cold 3 4 2

2 2 4 3(4) gills/lungs lungs gills gills gills lungs lungs bony

bony bony cartilage cartilage bony bony yes yes yes yes none yes yes

11 birds 15 mammals 16 reptiles 10 amphibians 12 bony fish 13 cart. fish 14 jawless fish 2 Arthropoda 3 Chordates 5 Echinoderms

7 Nematoda 8 Flatworms 4 Cnidaria 9 Sponges 3 Annelida 6 Mollusca Mammals Birds placental

(most) marsupials (kangaroo, opposum) monotremes (platypus, anteater) Amphibians Reptiles

Vertebrates Bony fish backbone body cavity Cartilagenous fish Jawless fish Vertebrates Chordates Arthropods

Invertebrate Chordates Annelids Echinoderms deuterostomes protostomes Mollusks Higher

Invertebrates no backbone true body cavity Roundworms no backbone Flatworms Lower Invertebrates

Cnidarians Sponges Key to groups: Super-Phylum Phylum Sub-phylum Class Sub-Class ingestive heterotroph multicellular eukaryotic

no true cavity K. Animalia Eucaryotic cells Ingestive heterotrophs Some basic characteristics: Symmetry (3 types) Digestive system (2 types) Layers (none, 2 or 3) Cavity (none false, real) Organizational level (cells, tissues, organs)

Cephalization Segmentation Embryo organization K. Animalia Nine Phyla Distinctive characteristics and examples from each Porifera Cnidaria Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) Roundworms (Nematoda) Mollusca

Annelida Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata (7 classes too) Humans (Homo sapiens) Chordates (phylum) Mammals (class) Primates (order) finger mobility opposable thumb friction ridges (hand and feet) binocular vision

expanded brain cortex Single birth Long, intensive parental care 0__________________________21 days chick mouse Humans (Homo sapiens) Chordates (phylum) Mammals (class) Primates (order) Humans (Homo sapiens) Chordates (phylum)

Mammals (class) Primates (order) Hominidae (family) walk upright Humans (Homo sapiens) Chordates (phylum) Mammals (class) Primates (order) Hominidae (family) Humans (Homo sapiens) Chordates (phylum) Mammals (class)

Primates (order) Hominidae (family) Brain size Use of tools/fire Culture/activities

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