Radiographic Concerns: Forelimb Field of view: Long bones

Radiographic Concerns: Forelimb  Field of view:  Long bones

Radiographic Concerns: Forelimb Field of view: Long bones Include proximal & distal joints Joints Include 1/3 of the bones proximal & distal Most projections via tabletop Collimate tightly

Can split image: Point toes the same direction Collimate & shield other side R Mediolateral Carpus 2 Radiographic Concerns: Forelimb (cont.)

Non-manual restraint (where possible) Place label at: Lateral view - Dorsal or cranial aspect Other views Lateral aspect Keep bone parallel to cassette and beam perpendicular Increase exposure factors

if splints/casts in place R Mediolateral Tarsus 3 The Forelimb: Radiographic Anatomy Shoulder Joint Mediolateral & CaCr Scapula Mediolateral & CaCr Humerus Mediolateral, CaCr, and CrCa

Elbow Mediolateral, CrCa Radius/Ulna Mediolateral, CrCa Foot Mediolateral, DPa 4 Shoulder Joint (Mediolateral View) 5 Shoulder Joint (Mediolateral

View) Area of interest closest to cassette Extend affected leg cranially & ventrally Opposite leg pulled out of way Arch head & neck dorsally Hind limbs in natural position Dont over-rotate thorax Head & limbs make a T

Borders: Proximal 1/3 of humerus & scapula 6 Shoulder & Scapula (Caudocranial View) (Same positioning for humerus) 7

Humerus (Mediolateral View) *Positioning is identical to scapula 8 Humerus (Mediolateral View) Lateral recumbency with affected leg down Affected leg is extended forward Opposite leg drawn back

Head and neck extended dorsally. Larger dogs may need 2 views Elbow/shoulder may differ in density Center ray at mid-shaft Borders 1/3 bone proximal to shoulder & distal to elbow 9 Humerus (Caudocranial

View) Same positioning as for shoulder/scapula Be aware of distortion since forearm is away from cassette 10 Elbow (Mediolateral Extended View) Move head & neck dorsally Extend other limb caudally

Affected elbow joint is in 120-degree extended position Maintain symmetry of structures with small foam pad under distal region of affected limb 11 Elbow (CrCa View)

Foam pad under unaffected limb Pull head away from affected limb Center ray on center of humeral condyles Borders 1/3 of bone proximal & distal Symmetry is essential * Same positioning for other CrCa views (with different borders) 12

Radius & Ulna (Mediolateral View) Same as for extended elbow view (with different borders) Place foam under the humerus & cranial thorax to maintain alignment Make sure cassette is large enough to include correct borders Measure at mid-shaft to minimize over-exposure

13 Radius & Ulna (CrCa View) Positioning as for CrCd elbow view (with different borders) Measure at mid-shaft of bone 14 Carpus (Mediolateral Hyperflexed

View) Lateral recumbency Hyperflex carpus Helps evaluate carpal joint laxity Borders Proximal third of metacarpus to distal third of radius/ ulna 15

Foot (Mediolateral View) Separate digits with tape (cotton isnt as effective) Measure & center primary beam at site of interest Borders Proximal 1/3 metacarpus to distal 1/3 R/U Cassette can be split point toes in same direction 16 Foot (Dorsopalmar View)

17 Hind Limb: General Considerations Anatomy (Pelvis): Half of femoral head should be in the acetabulum Femoral heads should be rounded and smooth Femoral neck should be smooth with no remodeling

Views (2): Dorsal recumbency for pelvis (V/D) and femur (CrCa) Sternal recumbency for distal hind limb (CdCr) 18 Hind Limb Terminology Dorsal recumbency: Used for proximal hind end

Sternal recumbency: Used for distal rear limbs 19 The Pelvis: Standard Positions Lateral Ventrodorsal Ventrodorsal Frog-Leg

20 Femur Standard Views Mediolateral Craniocaudal 21 Femur: Mediolateral View Positioning:

Flex unaffected limb & pull back Extend affected limb & secure Ensure full limb is in view Differences in thickness may require 2 views Femoral head towards cathode

Secure other body parts first 22 Stifle Standard Views Mediolateral Caudocranial (Sternal recumbency) 23

Stifle: Caudocranial View Positioning: Sternal recumbency Unaffected limb flexed near body Affected limb rests on patella Raising unaffected limb may help

24 Tibia & Fibula Standard Views Mediolateral Caudocranial (Sternal recumbency) 25

Tarsus & Foot Plantarodorsal 26

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