This Chapter in a Nutshell Ideas are often

This Chapter in a Nutshell  Ideas are often

This Chapter in a Nutshell Ideas are often suggested rather than being stated directly. We must infer, or figure out, those ideas. Discovering ideas that are not stated directly is called making inferences. We make inferences all the timein life and in visual and reading materials of all types. To make logical inferences, we must look closely at the information available and use our own experience and common sense. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences An Introduction to Inferences Inferences are ideas that are not stated directly. They are conclusions we draw from what we see, hear, and read.

Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences An Introduction to Inferences 1. The parents have several children in school. 2. Junior is not doing well in most subjects. Which of these two inferences is most logically based on the information suggested by the cartoon? Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences

An Introduction to Inferences 1. The parents have several children in school. Nothing in the cartoon indicates that the husband and wife have other children. The only child they are talking about is Junior. 2. Junior is not doing well in most subjects. If the good news is that Junior is passing gym, we can infer that there is also bad news: he is not passing some, or even all, of his other classes. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences

An Introduction to Inferences 3. The parents are angry about Juniors grades. 4. The wife is trying to be positive about a bad situation. Which of these three inferences is most logically based on the information suggested by the cartoon? 5. The parents were both good students when they were in school. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences

An Introduction to Inferences 3. The parents are angry about Juniors grades. Nothing suggests that the husband or the wife is angry. They might, for example, be used to Juniors poor performance in academic subjects. 4. The wife is trying to be positive about a bad Bysituation. presenting the good news about gym class first, the wife is trying to be as positive as possible. 5. The parents were both good students when they were in school. There is no evidence that the husband

and wife were good students. In fact, they might have had the same kind of academic difficulties as their son, but theres no way to tell. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials With visual material such as cartoons, book covers, and photographs, we can infer a great deal from all the clues provided. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials / Book Covers

Book Covers 1. The three true stories are about the three women shown. 2. The women are good friends with one another. Which of these two inferences is most logically based on the information suggested by the book cover? Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials / Book Covers

1. The three true stories are about the three women shown. It is logical to assume that people shown on the cover would be the books subjects. 2. The women are good friends with one another. There is no evidence given that the women know each other. Also, they are in separate photos, rather than together in one photo. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials / Book Covers

3. The womens lives have changed in positive ways. 4. All the women had parents who were nonreaders. Which of these three inferences is most logically based on the information suggested by the book cover? 5. All the women dropped out of school because of reading problems. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials / Book Covers

3. The womens lives have changed in positive ways. The title of the book and the smiling faces of the women suggest that the changes in their lives have been positive. 4. All the women had parents who were nonWereaders. are not given any information about the womens parents. 5. All the women dropped out of school because of reading problems. We are not told that the women dropped out of school. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials

/ Advertisements Advertisements 1. The man had a bicycle accident. 2. It is the mans own fault he is in the hospital. Which of these two inferences is most logically based on the information suggested by the advertisement? Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials / Advertisements

1. The man had a bicycle accident. The ad is for Lazer bike helmets. It is clear that the man in the picture has been in some sort of accident. His entire body is in a cast except for the top of his head; this is the part that would be protected by a bicycle helmet. Taken together, these details suggest the man has had a bicycle accident. 2. It is the mans own fault he is in the hospital. None of the information in the ad indicates who is at fault for the mans accident. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences

Inferences about Visual Materials / Advertisements 3. There should be a law requiring bikers to wear helmets. 4. Wearing a bike helmet protects ones head. Which of these three inferences is most logically based on the information suggested by the advertisement? 5. Bicycling is more dangerous than other activities. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Visual Materials / Advertisements 3. There should be a law requiring bikers to wear Thehelmets. ad suggests that it makes sense to wear a bike helmet. However, nothing indicates that there should be a law requiring bikers to wear helmets. 4. Wearing a bike helmet protects ones head. The one part of the man that is not in a cast is a helmet-shaped area at the top of his head. This suggests that wearing a bike helmet protects ones head. 5. Bicycling is more dangerous than other Theactivities.

ad does not compare the dangers of biking with the dangers of other activities. This is not a logical inference. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Reading Materials Below is a sentence you saw in the chapter Vocabulary in Context. In the United States, shaking hands is the appropriate way to greet someone; in China, bowing is the right way. The sentence does not give us a definition of appropriate, but it does suggest that appropriate is close in meaning to right. Thus we can infer in this sentence that appropriate means right or proper. As you looked at all the sentences in the chapter Vocabulary in Context, you inferred the meanings of words by looking closely at the surrounding context. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Reading Materials Inferences in Passages In all of our everyday reading, we make logical leaps from the information given directly on the page to ideas that are not stated To drawdirectly. such inferences, we use the clues provided by the writer, and we also apply our own experience, logic, and common sense. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences

Inferences about Reading Materials / Inferences in Passages Read the passage below. Then decide which inference is most firmly based on the given information. I once hired a roofer to put a new roof on my home. He checked the roof and then quoted me a price of $1,000. I agreed. He tore the old roof off, then came back down. I noticed a barely hidden smile on his face. Sorry, he said, its gonna cost you $1,800. I didnt know it needed so much work. No way, I said, folding my arms. Whatever you say, the roofer said. He looked up at the sky and commented, You know, it looks like rain. I sighed, shook my head, and said, With my luck, it will rain for three days. Finish the job. A. At first, the author did not want to spend the extra $800. B. The authors old roof would have held up for another year or two.

Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Reading Materials / Inferences in Passages Read the passage below. Then decide which inference is most firmly based on the given information. I once hired a roofer to put a new roof on my home. He checked the roof and then quoted me a price of $1,000. I agreed. He tore the old roof off, then came back down. I noticed a barely hidden smile on his face. Sorry, he said, its gonna cost you $1,800. I didnt know it needed so much work. No way, I said, folding my arms. Whatever you say, the roofer said. He looked up at the sky and commented, You know, it looks like rain. I sighed, shook my head, and said, With my luck, it will rain for three days. Finish the job. A. At first, the author did not want to spend the extra $800.

When the roofer first tells the author that the job would cost $1,800, the author says, No way. Using our common sense, we can conclude that the author of the selection refuses because he doesnt want to spend the extra $800. B. The authors old roof would have held up for another year orintwo. Nothing the passage suggests how much longer the the old roof would have lasted. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Reading Materials / Inferences in Passages Read the passage below. Then decide which inference is most firmly based on the given information. I once hired a roofer to put a new roof on my home. He checked the roof and then quoted me a price of $1,000. I agreed. He tore the old roof off, then came back down. I noticed a barely hidden smile on his face. Sorry, he said, its gonna cost you $1,800. I didnt know it needed so

much work. No way, I said, folding my arms. Whatever you say, the roofer said. He looked up at the sky and commented, You know, it looks like rain. I sighed, shook my head, and said, With my luck, it will rain for three days. Finish the job. C. The roofer may have planned all along to raise the price after the old roof was torn off. D. The author believes that all roofers are con men. E. The roofer had been recommended to the author. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Reading Materials / Inferences in Passages Read the passage below. Then decide which inference is most firmly based on the given information. I once hired a roofer to put a new roof on my home. He checked the roof

and then quoted me a price of $1,000. I agreed. He tore the old roof off, then came back down. I noticed a barely hidden smile on his face. Sorry, he said, its gonna cost you $1,800. I didnt know it needed so much work. No way, I said, folding my arms. Whatever you say, the roofer said. He looked up at the sky and commented, You know, it looks like rain. I sighed, shook my head, and said, With my luck, it will rain for three days. Finish the job. C. The roofer may have planned all along to raise the price after the old roof was torn off. In spite of the roofers claim that he didnt know, the barely hidden smile on his face implies he may have been planning all along to charge $1800. D. The author believes that all roofers are con men. The passage makes no mention of the authors view of all roofers. We see only his reaction to this roofer. E. The roofer had been recommended to the author. There is no mention in the passage of how the author came to hire the roofer. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER 8 Inferences Inferences about Reading Materials Guidelines for Making Inferences 1 2 Never lose sight of the available information. As much as possible, base your inferences on the facts. Use your background knowledge, experience, and common sense to help you in making inferences. The more you know about a subject, the better your inferences are likely to be. 3 Consider the alternatives.

Dont simply accept the first inference that comes to mind. Instead, consider all of the facts of a case and all the possible explanations. Copyright 2011 Townsend Press. All rights reserved. Practice Complete Practice 1, 2, and 3

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