Living with the physical environment Starter: Write five sentences in five minutes about this image. Living with the physical environment What do you understand by these four terms? Magnitude the size, or relative importance of something Frequency - is the number of times the data value Proportion occurs Ratio - is the fraction of the total is the relative sizes of two or more values Dates and names of major hurricanes hitting Florida (1960-2004) Year of major hurricane Storm name

1960 Donna 1964 Hilda 1965 Betsy 1975 Eloise 1992 Andrew 1995 Opal 2004 Charley

What is the average frequency of major hurricanes to make landfall in Florida from 1960-2004? The average frequency is the time period divided by number of hurricanes in that period. The Saffir-Simpson scale The Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale measures a hurricane's sustained wind speed on a scale of 1-5. It estimates potential property damage: Category Wind speeds Five 252 km/h Four 209 - 251 km/h Three 178 - 208 km/h Two 154 -177 km/h

One 119 -153 km/h Atlantic hurricanes 2012 A total of 19 tropical storms formed during the 2012 season. Map to show the paths of storms across the Atlantic Ocean, 2012 Table to show the amount of hurricanes in each intensity category in 2012 Storm categories based on Saffir Simpson scale Tally Cat 1 ////

Cat 2 /// Cat 3 // Category Wind speeds Five 252 km/h Four 209 - 251 km/h Three 178 - 208 km/h Two

154 -177 km/h One 119 -153 km/h 1. Express as a ratio, the number of category 1 hurricanes to category 2 hurricanes. 2. What is the ratio of hurricanes, to tropical storms for the 2012 season? In 2012, there were 19 tropical storms, but only the ones on the table above developed into hurricanes. 3. What can we conclude about hurricane season 2012 from this data? Earthquakes around the world since 1990Average annually Magnitude 8 and higher 1

7 - 7.9 15 6 - 6.9 134 5 - 5.9 1319 4 - 4.9 13,000 (estimated) 3 - 3.9 130,000 (estimated) 2 - 2.9 1,300,000 (estimated) 1. What was the frequency of magnitude 8 and higher earthquakes

since 1990? 2. What was the frequency of magnitude 6 to 6.9 earthquakes since 1990? 3. What is the ratio of magnitude 8 and higher to magnitude 7 7.9 earthquakes? The impact of earthquakes 1. Plot and draw a line of best fit on your copy of the graph above. 2. Is the correlation either positive, negative, or none? 3. Use your line of best fit to estimate the likely number of fatalities for a magnitude 7 earthquake. Numbers of volcano related deaths in

Japan, 1980-2010 198 4 198 6 198 8 198 9 199 0 199 1 199 3 199 4 199 5

199 7 29 2 3 3 6 43 1 1 4 9 1. What was the maximum number of volcano related deaths, in a single year in Japan between 1980 and 2010?

2. How many volcano related deaths were there in 1985? 3. What is the range in the number of volcano related deaths in Japan between 1980 and 2010? 4. What is the mode (value that appears most) in this data set? 5. What is the median (middle) value in this data set? Numbers of volcano related deaths in Japan, 1960s1990s Decade Number of volcano deaths in Japan per decade 1960s 10

1970s 31 1980s 37 1990s 64 What is the modal class in the frequency table of volcano related deaths in Japan between the 1960s and the 1990s? Numbers of volcano related deaths in Japan, 1960s1990s Decade Number of volcano deaths in Japan per decade 1960s 10 1970s

31 1980s 37 1990s 64 What is the range in the frequency table of volcano related deaths in Japan between the 1960s and the 1990s? Quartiles and inter quartile range The median is the middle value in a ranked data set. The two halves of data can be split again into quarters at a value called the quartile. If there are 20 values then the median would lie midway between the 10th and 11th value. The upper quartile lies between the 15th and 16th values and the lower quartile is between the 5th and 6th values. The interquartile range is the difference between the upper and the lower quartile. Find the median, lower quartile and upper quartile for the following data: 11, 4, 6, 8, 3, 10, 8, 10, 4, 12 and 31.

THE ANSWERS Quartiles and inter quartile range Find the median, lower quartile and upper quartile for the following data: 11, 4, 6, 8, 3, 10, 8, 10, 4, 12 and 31. Therefore, the median is 8, the lower quartile is 4, and the upper quartile is 11. 3, 4, 4, 6, 8, 8, 10, 10, 11, 12, 31 Calculating percentage change and using percentiles When geographers want to make comparisons between things or describe how something has changed over a period of time then they might calculate percentage change. To calculate the percentage increase between two numbers: 1. Work out the difference (increase) between the two numbers you are comparing 2. Divide the increase by the original number 3. Multiply the answer by 100 to give you a percentage. If the answer is a negative then this is a negative decrease The number of bus routes in Bristol increased from 24 in 2010 to 31 in 2016. Calculate the percentage increase.