Chapter 10 The Later Middle Ages Section Notes Video Popes and Kings The Crusades Christianity and Medieval Society Political and Social Change
Challenges to Church Authority The Bubonic Plague History Close-up Maps Europe, 1000 The Major Crusades, AD 1096-12
04 The Reconquista, AD 1000-1300 Old City: Jerusalem The Cluny Monastery Quick Facts The Crusades Beginnings of Democracy in England
Chapter 10 Visual Summary Images Crusader Battlefield School Days The Spanish Inquisition Popes and Kings
The Big Idea Popes and kings dominated European society in the Middle Ages. Main Ideas Popes and kings ruled Europe as spiritual and political leaders. Popes fought for power, leading to a permanent split within the church. Kings and popes clashed over some issues.
7.6.4 Main Idea 1: Popes and kings ruled Europe as spiritual and political leaders. In the early Middle Ages, nobles and knights held power. However, as time passed, power shifted to popes and kings.
The Power of the Popes The pope was the head of the Christian church in western Europe. The pope had great power because so many people belonged to the church. People saw the pope as Gods representative on Earth. The pope could cast from the church, or excommunicate, his enemies. Popes had great political and spiritual power.
The Power of the Kings Europe had been divided into many small states. In three countries, England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire, kings were the rulers. Kings inherited their titles from their fathers. Kings kept order through alliances and warfare. The leader of the Roman Empire was approved by the pope, so the region was also known as the Holy Roman
Empire. Main Idea 2: Popes fought for power, leading to a permanent split within the church. Although the people of western Europe considered the pope the head of the church, eastern European people disagreed. Pope Leo
Pope Leo IX believed that all Christians should answer to the pope, and that the pope should be the leader of the whole Christian church. The bishop of Constantinople disagreed with Pope Leo and wouldnt recognize his authority, so Pope Leo excommunicated him. This decision created a permanent split in the church. The Orthodox Church was formed by Christians who agreed with the bishop.
The rest of the church became known as the Roman Catholic Church. The pope became one of the most powerful figures in western Europe. Main Idea 3: Kings and popes clashed over some issues. As popes continued to try to increase their power, they came into conflict with kings.
Power Struggle Pope Gregory VII came to power in Rome. The pope disapproved of a bishop chosen by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. Henry became angry and tried to have the pope removed; however, the pope excommunicated Henry. Henry had to beg the pope for forgiveness to get back into the church.
This incident made the pope more powerful than the emperor at that time. The Crusades The Big Idea The Christian and Muslim cultures fought over holy sites during a series of medieval wars. Main Ideas The pope called on Crusaders to invade the Holy Land.
Despite some initial success, the later Crusades failed. The Crusades changed Europe forever. 7.6.6 Main Idea 1: The pope called on crusaders to invade the Holy Land. The Crusades were a long
series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia. The wars were fought over control of Palestine. Palestine was considered the Holy Land, because it was the region where Jesus
had lived, preached, and died. Causes of the Crusades Palestine and Jerusalem, part of the Holy Land, had fallen into the hands of Turkish Muslims. The Turks attacked Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land and made it dangerous to travel. The Turks began to raid the Byzantine Empire, so their
pope called on the Roman Catholic Church for help. A Call to Arms Pope Urban II called on Christians to retake the Holy Land. Five thousand men came to fight and sewed crosses on their clothing to show that they were fighting for God. The word crusade comes from the Latin for marked with a cross.
The First Crusade On the way to the Holy Land, the crusaders attacked Jews in Germany, blaming them for the death of Jesus. Before the Crusaders reached the Holy Land, the Turks killed most of the untrained and ill-equipped peasants. The nobles and knights moved on and defeated the disorganized Muslim army at Jerusalem. The crusaders set up four small kingdoms in the Holy Land and began trading with Europe. The rulers of these
kingdoms created a lord and vassal system like they had known at home. Main Idea 2: Despite some initial success the later Crusades failed. The Christians were unable to keep the Muslims from taking back land that had been won in the First Crusades. Europeans launched more Crusades, but they were not
successful. By 1291 the Muslim armies had taken back all of the Holy Land, and the Crusades had ended. Failures of the Crusades The Crusaders had to travel far, and many died along the way. The Crusaders werent prepared to fight in the desert climate.
The Christians were outnumbered and had poor leadership. Main Idea 3: The Crusades changed Europe forever. Although the Crusades were a failure, they brought many lasting changes to Europe.
Effects of the Crusades Trade between Europe and Asia grew. Muslim ideas were brought to Europe. Some kings and nobles increased their power because others had died in the Crusades. Due to the killings of the Jews, there was distrust between some Christians and Jews. A mutual respect developed between some Christians and Muslims. In general though, the Crusaders saw Muslims as
unbelievers who threatened innocent Christians and Muslims viewed the Crusaders as vicious invaders. Christianity and Medieval Society 7.6.8 The Big Idea The Christian Church was central to life in the Middle Ages.
Main Ideas The Christian Church shaped society and politics in medieval Europe. Orders of monks and friars did not like the churchs political nature. Church leaders helped build the first universities in Europe. The church influenced the arts in medieval Europe.
Main Idea 1: The Christian Church shaped society and politics in medieval Europe. In the Middle Ages the life of the people revolved around the church. Church officials, called clergy, and their teachings were very influential in European culture and politics. Influence of the Church
Markets, festivals, and religious activities all revolved around the church. People wanted to see religious sites, so they went on
pilgrimages, which are journeys to religious places. One popular destination was Canterbury, England, which is outside London.
The famous book Canterbury Tales is written about a group of pilgrims who went on a pilgrimage. The Church and Politics The church gained political power during the Middle Ages.
The church was one of the largest landholders in Europe because many people left land to the church after they died. Of all the clergy, bishops and abbots were the most involved in political matters. They became political advisers. Some became so involved in political matters that they spent little time dealing with religious affairs.
Main Idea 2: Orders of monks and friars did not like the churchs political nature. Not everyone was happy with the involvement of the church in politics. Among those who were unhappy were a group of French monks, the Monks of Cluny. The Monks of Cluny They were a group of monks who followed a strict schedule of
prayers and religious services. These monks formed a religious order called the Cluniac monks. A religious order is a group of people who dedicate their lives to religion and follow common rules. The Cluniacs became an example of how monks should live. New monasteries were built to follow their example. Some people felt that the Cluniacs were not strict enough, so they formed new orders. They practiced vows of silence and isolation. Women became nuns and formed orders known as convents.
Monks and nuns did a great deal for society. Collected and stored texts that explained Christian teachings Copied these documents and sent copies to other monasteries across Europe Friars Dominicans and Franciscans were groups known as friars, people who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public.
Friars lived simply and wore plain robes and no shoes. They owned no property and roamed about, preaching and begging for food. Their main goal was to teach people how to live good Christian lives. Main Idea 3: Church leaders helped build the first universities in Europe.
Although some people were withdrawing from the world into monasteries, there were others who wanted to learn more about the world. This led to the creation of the first universities. Early Universities Created by the Church The churchs goal was to teach people about the church. Most teachers at the church-created universities were clergy.
Besides religion, the universities taught law, medicine, astronomy, and other courses. New Ideas As people began to study new subjects, they developed new ideas. Some people in the university began to wonder how human reason and Christian thought were related. Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican philosopher, argued that
rational thought could support Christian beliefs. Thomas believed that God had created a law that governed how the world operated, called natural law. He believed that if people would study and learn more about this law, they could learn to live the way God wanted. Main Idea 4: The church influenced the arts in medieval Europe.
Throughout the Middle Ages, religious feelings inspired artists and architects to create beautiful works of art. Religious Architecture Churches became works of art. The grandest churches were called cathedrals, large churches in which bishops led services. Towering Gothic cathedrals were built in Europe in the 1100s. Gothic churches were much taller than older churches and had
huge windows of stained glass. Religious Art Paintings and tapestries were created to show respect for God. Priests wore highly decorated robes, sometimes with threads made of gold. Monks copied beautiful religious books with gold and silver that made the pages glow.
Political and Social Change The Big Idea Europes political and social systems underwent great changes in the late Middle Ages. Main Ideas Magna Carta caused changes in Englands government and legal system. The Hundred Years War led to political changes in
England and France. The Black Death, which swept through Europe in the Middle Ages, led to social changes. 7.6.5 7.6.7 Main Idea 1: Magna Carta caused changes in Englands
government and legal systems. In 1215 a group of nobles decided to force King John to respect their rights. They forced him to sign a document called Magna Carta, which in Latin means Great Charter. Effects of the Magna Carta The document granted the right of habeas corpus, which meant people could not be put in jail without a reason. Kings could not have people arrested without good cause.
Everyone had to obey the laws, even the king. The kings council became Parliament, the lawmaking body that governs England today. By the late Middle Ages, kings could do little without Parliaments support. Courts became free of royal control when the king could no longer choose judges. The Magna Carta began the English peoples movement toward democracy.
Main Idea 2: The Hundred Years War led to political changes in England and France. Political change also came to France, but it came through war and adversity. The Hundred Years War In 1328 the king of France died without an heir. One potential king was French, and the other was the king of
England. The Frenchman became king, which upset the king of England. The English king invaded France and began the Hundred Years War. After nearly 100 years of fighting, the French troops were rallied by a teenage peasant girl named Joan of Arc. The French drove the English out of France. Results of the War
The English Parliament grew stronger because the king had needed it to help pay for the war. The king began to lose power as Parliament grew stronger. In France, the kings power grew stronger. Fighting the English formed a bond between the king and the nobles. Main Idea 3: The Black Death, which swept through
Europe in the Middle Ages, led to social changes. While the French and the English fought the Hundred Years War, another crisis was sweeping through Europe. The Black Death, a deadly plague, moved quickly through Europe between 1347 and 1351. The Black Death was caused by several different forms of plague, such as bubonic plague.
Effects of the Black Death The Black Death killed so many people that they were buried without priests or ceremonies. In some villages nearly everyone died or fled. One million people were killed. The manor system fell apart because there were not enough people to work the fields. People abandoned the manors and villages and moved to the cities.
Challenges to Church Authority 7.6.9 The Big Idea In the Middle Ages, the Christian Church dealt harshly with people who did not respect its authority. Main Ideas
The church reacted to challengers by punishing people who opposed its teachings. Christians fought Moors in Spain and Portugal in an effort to drive all Muslims out of Europe. Jews faced discrimination across Europe in the Middle Ages. Main Idea 1: The church reacted to challengers by
punishing people who opposed its teachings. By around 1100 some Christians had begun to question the teachings of the church. Religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings are called heresy. Heretics are people who have ideas that are believed to be heresy. Church officials sent priests and friars to find heretics. Some used torture to make people confess. Most people were found guilty and fined, put into prison, or killed.
Pope Innocent III decided that heresy was widespread and encouraged the king of France to rid the land of heretics. This began a bloody war that would last 20 years, destroying many towns and lives. Main Idea 2: Christians fought Moors in Spain and Portugal in an effort to drive all Muslims out of Europe.
By the late 900s the Muslim government of Spain had begun to weaken. The kingdom of Spain fought against the Moors and eventually drove them out of Spain and Europe. By 1469 Spain was reunited under the rule of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. The Spanish Inquisition Ferdinand and Isabella wanted only Christians in their
kingdom. To make sure that only Christianity was practiced, they created the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish Inquisition was an organization of priests who looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion. They were ruthless in their search for heretics, Muslims, and Jews. Many people found guilty were killed by being burned to death.
About 2,000 people died in Spain, and about 1,400 in the Portuguese Inquisition. Main Idea 3: Jews faced discrimination across Europe in the Middle Ages. Heretics and Muslims were not the only groups punished for their beliefs. European Jews also suffered at the hands of Christians who believed Jews were responsible for the death
of Jesus. Discrimination against the Jews Rulers, supported by the church, forced Jews to leave their countries. In the Holy Roman Empire, frightened people blamed the Jews for the Black Death. Jews had to flee their homes to escape angry mobs.
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