Launch of the INCB Annual Reports 2015 2

Launch of the INCB Annual Reports 2015 2

Launch of the INCB Annual Reports 2015 2 March 2016 General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) 19 to 21 April 2016 at United Nations Headquarters in New York Member States to review: progress in international cooperation in countering the drug problem; and the achievements of and challenges to the international drug control system UNODC to provide substantive expertise and technical support to the preparatory process Health and welfare of mankind

Health and welfare is the ultimate goal of the 3 international drug control conventions Balanced and humane approach key Ensuring availability for medical and scientific purposes Preventing and Reducing demand, through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and reintegration Reducing illicit supply of drugs Health and welfare of mankind

Social health and challenges: prevention and reduction of social harms associated with the abuse of drugs Proportionality: alternative to conviction or punishment Respect for human rights: consistency of drug control action with international human rights standards New psychoactive substances (NPS)

A growing public health challenge Over 600 new substances reported till October 2015 > 55 % increase from 2014 10 NPS scheduled by Commission on Narcotics Drugs in 2015 INCB calls on Governments to devise solutions to protect the public from harms posed by NPS INCB Project ION Incident Communication System (IONICS) - over 500 NPS incidents reported through AFRICA Africa key transit point for drug trafficking; and North Africa primary source of drugs entering Europe

Increasing drug abuse; countries emerging as drug abuse makers Cannabis herb: produced throughout the continent Seizures of cannabis resin increased in North Africa by 31% in 2013 Cannabis: primary substance for which people receive treatment

Heroin abuse is on the rise; second most abused substance Egypt Steps to strengthen national legislation and capacities to counter trafficking in drugs, including new psychoactive substances. Eradication campaigns resumed: eradicated area of 344.7

ha of cannabis and 306.5 ha of opium poppy. 395 tons of cannabis herb seized, compared with 212 tons in 2013. Five synthetic cannabinoids scheduled and their import, export, production, possession, handling, buying and selling banned Heroin seizures increased significantly from 260 kg in 2013 to 613 kg in 2014. Seizures of tramadol declined significantly, from 435 million tablets in 2012 to 157 million tablets in 2014. Tramadol had been put under national control in 2013. Morocco Remains one of the worlds largest producers of cannabis resin and continues to supply cannabis resin to Europe.

Seizures of cannabis resin declined since 2012 (from 137 tons in 2012 to 107 tons in 2013 and to about 70 tons in 2014). Significant efforts to counter illicit cannabis cultivation. In 2013, 47,196 ha of cannabis cultivation reported (9.2 % less than in 2012). The total area under cannabis cultivation is expected to decline to 34,000 ha, in the next few years. The concentration of THC in cannabis cultivated in Morocco has increased. Emergence of cocaine trafficking. In 2014, 570 kg of cocaine seized in

Morocco. Most cannabis resin destined for Europe is smuggled from Morocco West Asia and the Middle East Instability and insecurity undermine drug control efforts Poor border controls and intensified population movement favourable to drug trafficking Armed conflict and refugee crisis increased demand for emergency supplies of controlled substances for medical purposes Counterfeit Captagon tablets remain a concern in the Middle East Limited access to drug dependence treatment

West Asia and the Middle East In Afghanistan Illicit opium poppy cultivation decreased from 240,000 ha in 2014 to 183,000ha in 2015 Estimated potential opium production: 3,300 tons, 48% less than previous year Widespread cannabis production, trafficking and abuse Widespread abuse of sedatives and anxiolytics The Middle East is a transit area for smuggling of cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). Increased traffic in cocaine Heroin seizures decreased among countries in 2014, particularly in, in decreasing order of seizure amounts, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia. Middle East Heroin Heroin seizures decreased among countries in 2014, particularly in, in decreasing order of seizure amounts, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia.

cannabis Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Lebanon reporting the largest seizures of cannabis in 2014 (in descending order of seizure amount) Cannabis shipments destined for Libya are regularly stopped in Lebanon. Cocaine Increase in seizures of cocaine reported in Jordan from 12 kg in 2013 to 319 kg in 2014, in Saudi Arabia from 4.6 kg in 2013 to 533.5 kg in 2014, and in UAE Opium Recommendations Health and welfare as aim of the treaties: UNGASS review;

promotion of alternative livelihoods Demand reduction: Prime objective of government action: prevention of substance abuse in society at large, particularly among youth Availability: Continuous study and ongoing review of policies to address the imbalance between overprescribing and underprescribing Psychotropic substances: Maintenance of vigilance to the

consequences of misuse and overuse of benzodiazepines, particularly among older patients Precursors: Make use of PEN Online and PICS to improve monitoring and exchange intelligence Questions & Answers THANK YOU!

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