INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING KEY CONCEPTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL
INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING KEY CONCEPTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING Psychological test: a standardized measure of a sample of a persons behavior Measure individual
differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests, and aspects of personality MENTAL ABILITY TESTS Most common Include intelligence tests: measure general mental
ability---assess intellectual ability Aptitude tests: assess specific types of mental abilities Achievement tests: gauge a persons mastery of knowledge and various subjects PERSONALITY TESTS
DEF: measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes STANDARDIZATION AND NORMS Standardization: refers to the uniform procedures used in
the administration and scoring of a test Test norms: provide info about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test Percentile score: indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained
RELIABILITY Refers to the measurement consistency of a test Test-retest, split-half reliability Reliability estimates require computation of correlation coefficients:
a numerical index of the degree of relationship btwn 2 variables VALIDITY Refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure Content validity: degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain its supposed to cover Criterion-related validity: estimated by correlating
subjects scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion of the trait assessed by the test Construct validity: the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING GALTONS STUDIES OF HEREDITARY GENIUS Sir Francis Galton
Found that success and eminence ran in families Wrote Hereditary Genius in 1869 Coined the term nature vs. nurture Invented concepts of correlation and percentile test scores
BINETS BREAKTHROUGH Alfred Binet asked to devise a test to identify mentally sub-normal children Worked with Theodore Simon The Binet-Simon scale expressed a childs mental age: displays the mental
ability typical of a child of a chronological age TERMAN AND THE STANFORD-BINET Lewis Terman of Stanford expanded and revised Binets test 1916: Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Included intelligence
quotient (IQ): a childs mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 WECHSLERS INNOVATIONS David Wechsler wanted a test for adults Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
(WAIS) published in 1939 Less dependent on verbal ability Discarded IQ in favor of normal distribution INTELLIGENCE TESTING TODAY 2 categories: Individual tests and
group tests Individuals are time consuming and costly Schools use OtisLennon School Ability Test and LorgeThorndike Intelligence Test BASIC QUESTIONS ABOUT INTELLIGENCE TESTING
WHAT KINDS OF QUESTIONS? Fairly diverse Information, vocabulary, demonstrate memory Manipulate words, numbers, and images through abstract reasoning
WHAT DO MODERN IQ SCORES MEAN? Normal distribution: a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population Scores translated into deviation IQ scores: locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement Scores indicate exactly where you fall in the normal distribution of intelligence
DO INTELLIGENCE TESTS MEASURE POTENTIAL OR KNOWLEDGE? Intelligence tests are intended to measure intellectual potential Reality: they measure both DO INTELLIGENCE TESTS HAVE ADEQUATE RELIABILITY?
Correlations range into the .90s They are reliable, but represent a sample Test anxiety can shift scores
Fernando Botero - Picnic. ALIMENTAZIONE. Mangiare "sano " / corretto per intolleranze alimentari. ATTIVIT. à. MOTORIA. Palestra, camminate , sport . Corpo " in forma" "Forma del corpo" Capacità di autocura
Focus on IT and population of AUR module (Antibiotic Use Module in NHSN) requiring computer upload of antibiotic data for the facility) HIIN or "H2N" - What's Coming. QIO. HEN. NM. Hospitals. HIIN - Improved Patient Safety.
25 yoa MVA victim. Comatose - needs artificial nutrition and hydration. Parents had evidence that she did not want to be kept alive with mechanical assistance. Supreme Court decides that patient has liberty to refuse medical treatment even if that...
*They were forced to pay reparations totaling 132,000,000,000 in gold. They lost 1/8 of all its land, all of its colonies, all overseas financial assets, a new map of Europe was carved out of Germany, and The German military was...