19 The Heart PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by

19 The Heart PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by

19 The Heart PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Leslie Hendon University of Alabama, Birmingham 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Circuits and Chambers The heart is a muscular double pump A. Pulmonary circuit: Right side receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs B. Systemic circuit: Left side receives oxygenated blood from lungs and pumps throughout the body

Atria = Receive blood from the pulmonary and systemic circuit Ventricles = Pump blood to the pulmonary and systemic circuit 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Pulmonary Circuit Aorta and branches Pulmonary arteries Left atrium

Right atrium Right ventricle Venae cavae Oxygen-rich, CO2-poor blood Oxygen-poor, CO2-rich blood 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Heart Left ventricle Systemic Circuit Pulmonary veins II. Location and Orientation within the Thorax A. Healthy heart typically weighs 250350 grams B. Largest organ of the mediastinum - located between the lungs C. Apex lies to the left of the midline D. Base is the broad posterior surface E. The Four Corners

Superior right - at costal cartilage of third rib and sternum Inferior right - at costal cartilage of sixth rib lateral to sternum Superior left - at costal cartilage of second rib lateral to sternum Inferior left - lies in the fifth intercostal space 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Midsternal line Rib 2 Superior vena cava Aorta Parietal pleura (cut)

Diaphragm Pulmonary trunk Left lung Pericardium (cut) Mediastinum Apex of heart Heart

Diaphragm Right lung T8 Posterior Mediastinum Aorta Superior vena cava Right auricle of right atrium Right ventricle

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Left lung Fat in epicardium Rib 5 Pericardium (cut) Apex of heart III. Membranes of the Heart Pericardium - two primary layers A. fibrous pericardium - strong layer of dense connective tissue B. serous pericardium reduces friction as heart beats

1. parietal layer = attached to the wall of cavity 2. visceral layer = attached to the heart surface (organ) 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Pulmonary trunk Pericardium Myocardium Fibrous pericardium Parietal layer of serous pericardium Pericardial cavity Epicardium (visceral

layer of serous pericardium) Myocardium Endocardium Heart chamber 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Heart wall IV. Layers of the Heart Wall A. Epicardium - visceral layer of the serous pericardium (upon) B. Myocardium - consists of cardiac muscle 1. cardiac muscle arranged in circular and spiral patterns

C. Endocardium inner surface 1. endothelium resting on a layer of connective tissue 2. lines the internal walls of the heart 3. Continuous with endothelium of arteries and veins 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cardiac muscle bundles 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. V. Heart Chambers A. Right and left atria - superior chambers

B. Right and left ventricles - inferior chambers C. Internal divisions septum wall between chambers 1. interventricular septa 2. interatrial septa 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Auricle of left atrium Right atrium Left ventricle Right ventricle Anterior view

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Apex VI. Right Atrium A. Forms right border of heart B. Receives oxygen-poor blood from systemic circuit through: 1. superior vena cava 2. inferior vena cava 3. coronary sinus (blood returning from veins of heart itself) C. Pectinate muscles - ridges inside anterior of right atrium D. Fossa ovalis - depression in interatrial septum 1. remnant of foramen ovale hole between atria in fetal heart 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

VII. Right Ventricle A. Receives blood from right atrium through the right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve) B. Pumps blood into pulmonary circuit through pulmonary trunk C. Features of the internal walls of right ventricle trabeculae carneae fishnet like small cavities chordae tendineae strings attached to the valve cusps papillary muscles attached to the chordae pectinate muscle normal smooth-like muscle of walls D. Pulmonary semilunar valve (pulmonary valve) 1. Located at opening of right ventricle and pulmonary trunk 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

VIII. Left Atrium A. Forms the apex of the heart B. Makes up hearts posterior surface C. Receives oxygen-rich blood from lungs through pulmonary veins D. Opens into the left ventricle through 1. left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid valve) a. mitral valve is another name for the left AV valve E. Pumps blood through systemic circuit via 1. aortic semilunar valve (aortic valve) 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Brachiocephalic trunk Superior vena cava

Right pulmonary artery Ascending aorta Pulmonary trunk Right pulmonary veins Right atrium Right ventricle Inferior vena cava Anterior view 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Left common carotid artery Left subclavian artery Aortic arch Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Auricle of left atrium Left ventricle Anterior view 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Apex Anterior view 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Right atrium Fossa ovalis Pectinate muscles Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Chordae tendineae Trabeculae carneae

Frontal section 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Frontal section 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Left atrium Left pulmonary veins Mitral (bicuspid) valve Aortic valve Pulmonary valve Left ventricle

Papillary muscle Interventricular septum Frontal section 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Frontal section 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Auricle of left atrium Right atrium Left atrium

Left ventricle Right ventricle Apex Inferior view; surface shown rests on the diaphragm. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. IX. Heart ValvesValve Structure A. Atrioventricular (AV) valves 1. between atria and ventricles Right AV valve tricuspid valve Left AV valve bicuspid (mitral) valve B. Aortic and pulmonary valves 1. at junction of ventricles and great arteries

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Area of cutaway Mitral valve Tricuspid valve Mitral (left atrioventricular) valve Tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve Aortic

valve Pulmonary valve Anterior 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Direction of blood flow Atrium Cusp of atrioventricular valve (open) Chordae tendineae

Ventricle 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Papillary muscle X. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart superior/inferior vena cavae right atrium (tricsupid valve) right ventricle (pulmonary semilunar valve) pulmonary trunk LUNGS

pulmonary veins left atrium (bicuspid (mitral) valve) left ventricle (aortic semilunar valve) aorta BODY 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. XI. Structure of Heart Wall A. Walls differ in thickness 1. atria = thin walls; ventricles = thick walls

2. left ventricle 3X thicker than right ventricle a. exerts more pumping force (to the body!!) Left venticle 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. XII. Conduction System of the Heart A. Cardiac muscle cells have intrinsic ability to: 1. generate and conduct impulses 2. signal these cells to contract rhythmically SA node AV node AV Bundle (Bundle of His) Bundle branches

Purkinje fibers 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Right atrium sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker cells) atrioventricular (AV) node Left atrium atrioventricular

(AV) bundle bundle branches Purkinje fibers 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Interventricular septum Right atrium Left atrium Interventricular

septum 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. XIII. Innervation of the Heart A. Parasympathetic fibers 1. branches of vagus nerve (X) 2. decrease heart rate 3. restricted to: SA node, AV node, coronary arteries B. Sympathetic nerves 1. travel from cervical and upper thoracic chain ganglia 2. also SA node, AV node, coronary arteries 3. also innervate cardiac muscle throughout the heart a. increase heart rate and strength of contraction

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus The vagus nerve (parasympathetic) decreases heart rate. Cardioinhibitory center Cardioacceleratory center

Medulla oblongata Sympathetic trunk ganglion Thoracic spinal cord Sympathetic trunk Sympathetic cardiac nerves increase heart rate and force of contraction. AV node SA

node Parasympathetic fibers Sympathetic fibers Interneurons 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. XIV. Blood Supply to the Heart A. Coronary arteries 1. right coronary artery branches to form the marginal artery later branches into the posterior interventricular artery 2. left coronary artery anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. XV. Cardiac Veins A. carry deoxygenated blood from the heart wall to the right atrium B. occupy sulci (grooves) on the hearts surface C. Coronary sinusruns in the posterior part of the coronary sulcus 1. Returns majority of venous blood from heart to the right atrium D. Three tributaries of coronary sinus great cardiac vein middle cardiac vein small cardiac vein 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary trunk Anastomosis (junction of vessels) Left atrium Left coronary artery Right atrium

Right coronary artery Circumflex artery Right ventricle Anterior interventricular artery Left ventricle Right marginal artery

Posterior interventricular artery The major coronary arteries Superior vena cava Anterior cardiac veins Small cardiac vein 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The major cardiac veins

Great cardiac vein Coronary sinus Middle cardiac vein

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