What is Biology? Chapter 1, Section 1 Pages 3-10 What is Biology? BIOLOGY is the study of life. Living things are called ORGANISMS. o Include animals, plants, fungi, protist, and bacteria.
Organisms do NOT exist in isolation, they are all functioning parts in the delicate balance of nature. Characteristics of Living Things All Living things share common characteristics: o o
o o o o o o Made up of one or more cells Based on universal Code (DNA)
They reproduce Obtain and use materials and energy They grow and develop Respond to a stimulus Maintain a stable internal environment All living things adapt and evolve over time Organisms are grouped by their number of Cells
UNICELLULAR- One celled organisms such as bacteria. MULTICELLULAR Many celled organisms such as humans Cell Facts Cells can be EUKARYOTIC, cells that contain a nucleus. Ex: Plant and Animal
Cells Cells can be PROKARYOTIC, cells that DO NOT have a nucleus. Ex: Bacteria Cells Cells Have a Genetic Code They Reproduce
Must be able to produce a new member of its own species. o SEXUAL REPRODUCTION When 2 members of a species come together and exchange DNA to make a new member that is NOT identical to parents
o ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION When 1 parent divides into two new identical cells. Obtain Materials Organisms must be able to obtain materials needed for survival. Plants need WATER and Carbon Dioxide to
make their own food (Autotrophs) o Animals need FOOD (Heterotrophs) and OXYGEN o Must be able to use ENERGY (the ability to do work) in food. o
Cellular Respiration Releasing the chemical energy stored in food. Grow and Develop Organisms GROW by making more cells and by enlarging Organisms DEVELOP as they mature into the adult organism
Respond to a Stimuli Organisms RESPOND to a STIMULI in their environment in order to survive and reproduce. o Respond to: Temperature Water
Food Supplies Homeostasis Keeping the cell in a state of balance. Keeping the internal environment of the organisms within the ranges required for life Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc.
Adapt to Environment Organisms must ADAPT to their ever changing environment. These adaptations within groups of organisms can lead to EVOLUTION. Scientists use the Fossil Record to show evolution of a species.
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