2018 Pavement Workshop I-FIT and Illinois Experience May

2018 Pavement Workshop I-FIT and Illinois Experience May

2018 Pavement Workshop I-FIT and Illinois Experience May 23-24, 2018 Brian Pfeifer Engineer of Materials + 46 Associate Members 1 Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test 2011 Trip to TXDOT 50 C, 12.5 mm Mix Design and Production Testing PG High Temp Passes 58 and lower

5,000 64 7,500 70 15,000 76 and higher 20,000 2 HWTT Implementation All Mixes and Projects in 2013 Annual Uniformity Study Six rounds since 2012 Currently 27 machines Lessons Learned

Greater proportion of manufactured sand Relaxed criteria (58 & 64 were 10,000 passes) 3 Recycled Materials Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles (RAS) Introduced Exploring Higher Asphalt Binder Replacement (ABR) Levels Improved Rutting Resistance Cracking Resistance Investigation in 2012 4 Illinois Center for Transportation Testing Protocols to Ensure Performance of High Asphalt Binder Replacement Mixes Professor Imad Al-Qadi, PI Cracking Resistance Simple, Inexpensive 5

Illinois Flexibility Index Test 25C 0.5C for 2.0 0.5h Load Line Displacement Loading Rate 50mm/min 3.5 Load (kN) ITP 405/AASHTO TP 124 Conditioning 3.0 = 2.5 2.0

100|| 1.5 1.0 0.5 ( ) = 0 0.0 Load Line Displacement (mm) (Units in mm)

6 Fracture Energy & Flexibility Index N90 (30% ABR) Fracture Energy = 1780 J/m2 Flexibility Index = 6.2 N90 (Control) Fracture Energy = 1790 J/m2 Flexibility Index = 11.3 7 F H W A A L F C y c le s to F a ilu re FHWA ALF Sections I-FIT Testing WMA/RAP/RAS Sections 400,000 350,000 Current 23%

Reduction Minimum Threshold in Cycles to Failure = 8.0 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Flexibility Index (FI) 8 ICT Report: Utilizing Lab Tests to Predict Asphalt Concrete Overlay Performance Three High ABR Sections (Up to 60%) in 2013 Five Sections in 2014 & 2015 (15-48% ABR)

Detailed Crack Surveys Through 2017 FI = 0.9 56% ABR 4 yrs. old 9 ICT Report: Utilizing Lab Tests to Predict Asphalt Concrete Overlay Performance Figure 8.1 10 I-FIT Testing at IDOT Central Lab and 9 District Labs Mostly Plant-Produced Samples Results from Over 600 Mixes 11 Bar values represent Average FI (Trimmed Mean)

Flexibility Index Plotting Methodology 40.0 35.0 30.0 Error bars: one standard deviation () on either side of the average 25.0 Values at the bottom of each bar: number of test specimens in the trimmed mean 10.0 20.0 15.0

23.2 5.0 0.0 30 Unmodified Modified 12 Effect of LT Grade (Plant/Lab Specimens) 18.0 < 10% ABR 16.0 14.0 FI 12.0

10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 13.4 3.4 -22C 16.0 9.3 -28C 7.2 -34C LT Grade (C)

13 Effect of Virgin AC 15.0 FI 12.0 9.0 6.0 3.0 0.0 4.4 8.2 9.8

11.4 12.1 <3% 3-4% 4-5% 5-6% >6% Virgin AC Content (%) 14 Effect of ABR 15.0 Plant/Lab FI

12.0 9.0 6.0 3.0 0.0 12.8 9.9 10.2 8.6 <10% 10-20% 20-30%

>30% ABR (%) 15 Flexibility Index Effect of SBS Polymer Modification 20.0 Unmodified Mixtures 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 13.5 17.0

< 10% 10.8 12.6 10 - 20% 9.4 8.6 20 - 30% ABR Range 8.3 6.6 > 30% Findings

Lower AC low temperature grade increased FI Increases in VMA and Virgin AC Content lead to increased FI Increases in ABR lead to reductions in FI Increased FI with SBS Polymers FI Decays with Time 17 ICT Study on Machine Variability Evaluated Effect of Machine Type and Fixture Configuration Servo-hydraulic and screw drive Spring and bearing rollers Eight Mixtures (Six from MnROAD) Device Configurations Found to Have No Significant Effect on FI Results 18 2017 I-FIT Uniformity

Study 30 Machines: IDOT (10), WisDOT, InDOT, Private Labs (15), and ICT (3) Round 1: Specimens Prepared and Cut at Central Lab Round 2: Specimens Cut at Each Lab Round 3: Loose Mix Sent to Labs 19 2017 I-FIT Uniformity Study Average FI Values of 4.7, 4.5, and 5.9 Investigating Gyratory Height as Possible Cause of Higher Round 3 Average Standard Deviation of Average FI Values: 1.10, 0.80, and 1.65 20 2018 Uniformity Study Approach Added MODOT, NCAT, and two IL labs

Round 1 160mm gyratory Round 2 150mm gyratory Round 3 115mm gyratories 21 Round 1 Results I-FIT Round Robin - 160mm Gyratory Height Test Group Number of Test Sets Avg. Gf* (J/m2) Avg Gf COV (%)

Avg. Slope (kN/mm) IDOT 10 2522.1 8.1 1.0 17.8 25.3 15.7 19.9 Private

17 2422.3 9.4 1.2 15.4 21.5 18.1 26.3 Other States and University 7 2461.3

4.3 1.0 9.2 24.9 10.0 22.1 All Machines 34 2459.7 8.0 1.1

14.8 23.3 15.7 24.5 Avg Slope Individual Lab FI Population FI Avg. FI COV (%) COV (%) COV (%) 22 Effect of Gyratory Height Test Group All Machines I-FIT Round Robin - Round 1 160mm Gyratory Avg. FI

Individual Lab FI COV (%) 23.3 15.7 Population FI COV (%) 24.5 Test Group All Machines I-FIT Round Robin - Round 2 150mm Gyratory Avg. FI Individual Lab FI COV (%) 22.0 14.7 Population FI COV (%) 26.9 Test Group All Machines I-FIT Round Robin - Round 3 115mm Gyratory

Avg. FI Individual Lab FI COV (%) 22.8 13.0 Population FI COV (%) 20.9 23 2018 I-FIT Uniformity Study N50 D Surface Mix (Design PG 64-28) Asphalt Grade Total Asphalt Content ABR VMA VFA RAP

PG 64-28 6.1% 9.8% 15.9% 74.8% 10.0% 24 2018 Uniformity Study Findings No Consistent Trends with Gyratory Height Individual Lab COVs for FI < 16% 25 Pilot Projects in 2016

11 Projects Across All 9 Districts Mix Design and Production Testing, HW & I-FIT Coring and Distress Surveys (5+ Years) 26 2016 Pilot Projects FI Results 50 45 Design Production 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

B B B S S B B S S S S B B S S S S S B S S B

S S B S #1 #2L #1L 2#2 #1L 2#2 3#1 3#2 #3L #4L #1L #2L 4#3 1#1 1#2 2#1 6#1 6#2 #3L 7#1 7#2 8#1 #2L 9#1 9#2 #3L 1 1 2 D D D D3 D3 D4 D4 D 5P 5P 5P D D D6 D D D D8 D D D9 P P D2 D1 D1P D1P D1 D

D D 27 BMD (HW/I-FIT) Implementation 15 Projects Awarded in 2017 Additional Projects in 2018 (29 or more) All Interstate Projects in 2019 All Projects in 2020 28 Task Force with Industry & FHWA Mix Design Requirements/Expiration Allow Higher Asphalt Binder Replacement Production Testing, Running Average Considering FI > 8.0 for SMA Williams Street SMA at 20 Years, FI=4.5 for surface and FI=12 and 18 for binder lifts 29

Long Term Aging ICT Study Correlating LTA Protocol with Field Performance Oven Aging of I-FIT Specimen at 95 C Threshold Expected Around FI=4.0 Evaluating Binder Additives and Modifiers 30 NCAT/MnROAD Cracking Study NCAT, 7 Sections (2015), 10M ESALs Density, RAP/RAS, HiMA, AZ GTR MnROAD, 8 Sections (2016) RAP/RAS, binder grades, HiMA Six Cracking Tests, Including I-FIT 31 Acknowledgments Illinois Department of Transportation

Matt Mueller (retired), Jim Trepanier, Tom Zehr, Brian Hill, Joe Rechner Illinois Center for Transportation Imad Al-Qadi, Hasan Ozer, David Lippert 32 Thank You

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