Punctuation Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation Question
Punctuation Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation Question Marks Colons Exclamatio n Marks SemiColons
Full Stops Speech Marks Commas Grammar Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation
Nouns Chunks of Meaning Adverbs Complex Sentences Auxiliary Verb Verbs Improving Sentences
Adjectives Connective AUXILIARY VERBS AN AUXILIARY VERB IS ALSO CALLED A HELPER VERB IT COMES BEFORE SOME VERBS NOT ALL SENTENCES HAVE AN AUXILIARY SENTENCES WITH NO AUXILIARY VERB
I PLAYED FOOTBALL LAST NIGHT I WALK THIS WAY TO SCHOOL EVERY DAY I LIKE CHOCOLATE CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE VERBS IN THESE SENTENCES? HERE ARE SOME SENTENCES WITH MISSING AUXILIARY VERBS CAN YOU SUGGEST REPLACEMENTS? I _____ WALKING ALONG THE DUSTY ROAD. TOMORROW I ___ SWIM FOR
MY SCHOOL. I __ VERY GOOD AT MATHS. DAD _____ THE DISHES BECAUSE MUM COOKS THE TEA. MODALS CAN, WILL, SHALL, COULD, WOULD, SHOULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST Back to Grammar Back to
Punctuation THESE ARE FOLLOWED BY THE BASE FORM OF A VERB USE EACH OF THESE IN A SENTENCE OF YOUR OWN:CAN WALK; WILL TRY; SHALL PLAY; COULD TIDY; WOULD LIKE; SHOULD WORK; MAY EAT; MIGHT CHOOSE; MUST BREATHE Connectives Connectives are connecting adverbs that link ideas which may be in different sentences or paragraphs.
They help to link your: Ideas Sentences Paragraphs Connectives are used between paragraphs or between sentences in order to show a connection between one part of your writing and another. They make your writing more powerful. Connectives Using a whiteboard write down as many
connectives as you can. Remember they need not just be single words; some can be made up of a few words put together. What effect do the different connectives you have written down have on sentences they could be used in? Discuss this with your Talking Partner. Adding Connectives These add further information. e.g. He liked sausages as well as ice cream. Have a go at writing some
of your own sentences using these connectives. and moreover too also as well as
Sequencing Connectives These help to develop the logical sequence of you ideas. They enable you to show chronological order. e.g. He went into the bathroom before he went downstairs. Write two sentences in your book that use a couple of these connectives. before next
first after then second third eventually meanwhile finally firstly Emphasising Connectives These help to highlight your ideas.
e.g. He loved skating especially on a cold frosty day. Choose one of these connectives to write a really interesting sentence with. above all especially indeed in particular notably significantly
CAUSE AND EFFECT CONNECTIVES These connectives Back to so help to explain why Grammar because something happens. thus e.g. The boy missed
consequently his bus and Back to Punctuation consequently was late therefore for school. Try to explain why something happened using one of these connectives. Creating Complex Sentences
Splicing is when you join two sentences together without using a conjunction, semi-colon or even a full stop and capital letter. HINT: Listen out for a pause when the sentence is read. e.g. David dragged his heels to the shop he was in a foul mood. (splice) David dragged his heels to the shop, he was in a foul mood. (comma splice) David dragged his heels to the shop because he was in a foul mood. (corrected with conjunction) David dragged his heels to the shop; he was in a foul mood. (corrected with semi-colon) David dragged his heels to the shop. He was in a foul mood. (corrected with new sentence)
Creating Complex Sentences Splicing is most commonly caused by using pronouns incorrectly. Common pronouns are: I, you, it, she, he, we, they Common conjunctions are: and, but, although, even though, yet, because, until, whereas, despite, whilst, so, since, as, after, so that, before, once, which Creating Complex
Sentences Now correct these sentences using a different technique or conjunction each time. 1) Ali stepped cautiously onto the pad he couldnt believe what he saw. 2) Its amazing! exclaimed Anna she was completely taken aback. 3) I think it would be better to go home now we need to go to bed. 4) Adam was extremely pleased with his work Beth was completely disgusted. Creating Complex Sentences
What is a complex sentence? A complex sentence is a two or more sentences joined together. They usually start with a compound sentence (2 sentences joined), but with added detail, using extra punctuation. HINT: That last sentence was complex! Creating Complex Sentences We can add more detail to a sentence by adding a new phrase with commas, brackets or dashes. Have a look at the example below.
Example: It was a beautiful summers day as Alan paced towards the pier. It was a beautiful summers day as Alan, with his prize held high, paced towards the pier. It was a beautiful summers day (probably the hottest that year) as Alan paced towards the pier. It was a beautiful summers day as Alan paced -with a bounce in his step - towards the pier. Creating Complex Sentences Back to
Grammar Back to Punctuation We can add more information to a sentence by adding an embedded clause. For example The girl chose a good book becomes The girl, who was sitting in the library, chose a good book. Have a go at completing some more of
these. Chunks of Meaning Words Dog Big Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs ked
r a B Clauses subject verb the big dog was barking At midnight last Wednesday, the big dog was barking rather wistfully, in the garden behind my house.
Words and phrases go together to make clauses A clause must always have a verb in It may also have other chunks, but as long as theres only one verb (or verb chain) its a single clause Clauses can be put together to make compound or complex sentences. Chunks of Meaning Words Dog d
e k r Ba Big Phrases Clauses was barking in t he
gar de n subject verb the big dog was barking g o d ig b e
th Words Chunks of Meaning Dog Big d e k r Ba
Phrases in was barking t he ga r den Clauses subject g o d g
i b the verb the big dog was barking Sentences At midnight last Wednesday, the big dog was barking rather wistfully, in the garden behind my house. Commas can also affect meaning
Sentence Slow, children crossing. Go slowly there are children crossing the road. Sentence Slow children crossing. This is just describing that there are a group of slow
Lets Practice Our teacher Mr Elliot likes Tortoises a lot. Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation The human body is a fantastic thing which we really take for granted but should really take more care of. School is fun most of the time but can sometimes be boring. The man ran down the hallway not noticing the
people behind him. When you go to sleep you sometimes have dreams that can turn into nightmares. She looked around wondering if anyone was following her when she saw a shadow behind her. Semi-colons Where should they go? ; Colons and Semi-colons Like commas and full tops they
mark the places where you would pause when speaking. : ; Each punctuation mark has a certain strength. . : ;
, The comma is the weakest mark, then comes the semi-colon. The colon is stronger than the semi-colon, but weaker than the full stop. Semi-colon A semi-colon can sometimes be used to replace a full stop. It links two complete sentences and turns them into one. A semi-colon can sometimes be used to replace a full stop. It links two complete sentences and turns them into one.
Heres how The door swung open; a masked figure strode in. He never took any exercise; consequently he became very fat. At the circus we saw a clown juggling with swords and daggers; a lion who stood on a ball; a fire eater with flashing eyes; and an eight year old acrobat. She was very tired; she had worked late the night before. Have a go! Back to
Grammar Back to Punctuation 1. The rabbit had been sadly neglected it was in an awful state. 2. John opened the drawer it was empty.
3. The wedding invitations have all been sent out two hundred guests are expected. 4. Tom was very clever and worked hard he deserved to pass all his Sats. 5. Sallys birthday is in November Johns is
in September. Colons Where should they go? : Colons and Semi colons Like commas and full tops they mark the places where you would pause when speaking. : ;
Each punctuation mark has a certain strength. . : ; , The comma is the weakest mark, then comes the semi-colon. The colon is stronger than the semi-colon, but weaker than the full stop.
Colon A colon can sometimes be used to introduce lists. You need the following ingredients: eggs, butter, flour, sugar and milk. Colons Are used in plays. Tom: Dont forget to lock the door. Lisa: I wont. Tom: And close all the windows. Colons Can be used before direct speech,
instead of a comma. To my amazement, I heard Mary say: I am never coming back. Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation Have a go! 1.
I think I have remembered everything, string, nails, plywood, hammer and pliers. 2. Remember the saying A stitch in time saves nine. 3. All my tools were stolen a hammer, saw, screwdriver and wire cutters. 4.
I enjoy all subjects French, Spanish, English and Maths. 5. Roald Dahl wrote many books James and the Giant Peach, Esio Trot and The Twits. 6. I shall never forget his advice If you cant say something nice, dont say anything at all.
Negative Prefixes A prefix is added to the beginning of a word, or to a word root to change its meaning. For example adding un to pleasant becomes unpleasant. It makes the original word an antonym (its opposite) pleasant Try these: Move the un to the root word and see what antonym you get
dress Un decided cooked acceptable did Choose negative prefixes from the box to make each of these words into antonyms. word roots justice polite
approve behave possible sufficient literate colour trust honest In dis mis im il Can Can you you think think of
of any any more more examples examples of of antonyms antonyms containing containing these these negative negative prefixes? prefixes? Does
Does it it change change its its spelling spelling in in each each case? case? Use a dictionary and a thesaurus to help. On your whiteboards write these word roots to make antonyms. Work in pairs.
Antonym using Word Back to negative prefix Grammar Back to Punctuation experience logical mature regular
possible complete legal reversible Show me your Whiteboards. How did you get on? What did you learn? Their, There and Theyre Their Belonging to them
There Over there Theyre They are Which one? How often do they tidy __________ mess up? Never! Which one? How often do they tidy their mess up? Never!
Which one? _________ legs are so long, they can just walk over fences! Which one? Their legs are so long, they can just walk over fences! Which one? The Science Books are over _____. Which one? The Science Books are over there.
Which one? __________ over __________! shouted Mr Studd. Which one? Theyre over there! shouted Mr Studd. Which one? __________ lazy! That is ______ rubbish over __________. . Which one?
Theyre lazy! That is their rubbish over there. Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation Punctuation Making Sense of Writing Capital Letters We need these to begin a new
sentence. For proper nouns which are the Back to names of people, places, book and Punctuation film titles. Can you think of any proper nouns which need a capital letter? Back to Grammar Proper Nouns Back to Grammar
Back to Punctuation Jenny, who lived in King Street, Manchester, had a pet frog who liked to jump in the air. She wrote a book about it called The Leaping Frog. Why do we need full stops? Back to
Grammar Back to Punctuation Full stops are needed to divide up sentences so that we know where to pause. They are used when we have finished saying one thing, and we are going on to say something else.
Can you spot where we need full stops? Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation Sean was eating a large pizza he was getting fed up with it he decided to give the rest to the dog the dog was happy Commas
We need commas to separate items in a list. She had a ham sandwich, a drink, a jelly, and a chocolate bar for lunch. Any other reason for commas? We also use commas to separate clauses in complex sentences. The boy was playing with a Back to Punctuation
football, which had been signed by Wayne Rooney. Back to Grammar Question marks Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation Of course we use question marks when a question is
asked. This often occurs when characters use speech. Can you all hear me? Speech marks Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation We let the reader know when someone is speaking by
putting speech marks around the spoken words. I will be on TV some day, announced Jimmy. Just you wait and see. Exclamation marks! Back to Grammar Exclamation marks are used to emphasise meaning. It could be to :Give a word more strength Show someone is shouting
Add a sense of urgency Back to Punctuation HELP! What shall we do now? First you must use capitals and full stops. Read it out loud to yourself. Identify each sentence. Have you used a capital for proper nouns? Check if you have long sentences or lists that need dividing up with commas.
Have you used any questions? What do you need? Have you shown when a character is speaking? Do you wish to emphasise any words? CHECK PUNCTUATION. You will all have a punctuation check list. Use it every time you do a piece of writing. C . , ? ___ !
The Mighty Apostrophe The apostrophe has 2 functions 1. To replace missing letters in contractions. 2. To show that something belongs to someone. (possession) Contracti ons
I am Im We are Were He is Hes Now try contracting these words. Cant Can not Shed
She had Theyre They are Hell He will Weve We have Possessio n Apostrophes can also be used to show that
something belongs to someone else. Mr Elliots chair . Have a go at putting the apostrophes in the right place. Back to Grammar The pencil case that belonged to Megan.
Megans pencil case. The drink that belonged to Jack Jacks drink. The book that belonged to Tiarna. Tiarnas book The rubber that belonged to Charles Charles rubber Back to Punctuation
Improving sentences Objective to improve sentences by adding: adjectives adverbs a prepositional phrase
an embedded clause an ing and ed clause. Our basic sentence A dog barked . Adding adjectives What is an adjective and what is its job? To describe the
noun A describing word The dog barked. The adjective goes before the noun. The ferocious dog barked. The scruffy dog barked. The aggravated dog barked Now its your turn. Add an adjective. The-----------------dog barked
Adding adverbs What is an adverb? What does it do? Tells you how something is being done It qualifies the verb The ferocious dog barked. The ferocious dog barked noisily. The ferocious dog barked excitedly.
Now its your turn, how did the dog bark? Add an adverb to your already improved sentence. Adding a prepositional phrase What is a prepositional phrase ? It tells you where or when something happened Some examples are: on, in, under, by, after, through, during, beside They can go at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the sentence. The The ferocious dog barked noisily.
ferocious All through the dog barked night the noisily The ferocious ferocious dog through the dog, in the back barked noisily. hole in the of the car, fence. barked noisily.
Can you add a prepositional phrase to the beginning or end of your sentence? Embedding a clause a sandwich sentence Adding in information between commas using who, which, that, with. Use commas as the two slices of bread and then put in the filling extra information. Put a , after the noun you are giving more information about then the filling and close the sandwich with another , The ferocious dog barked noisily through the hole in the fence. ,
The ferocious dog who was trying to scare away the burglars ,barked noisily through the hole in the fence. The ferocious dog, who lived next door, barked noisily through the hole in the fence. The ferocious dog, that had just been injected, barked noisily through the hole in the fence. Embed a clause into your sentence. Adding an ing or ed clause
This is just another type of clause that you can embed in your sentence. The clause you embed begins with an ing or an ed word. Put the , after the noun you are giving more information about and after the filling! The dog , running around in circles ,barked.
The dog, teased by the children , barked. Putting it altogether! Heres what we started with The dog barked. And heres our improved sentence! The ferocious dog, who was trying to scare away the burglars, barked noisily through the hole in the
fence. Lets hear some of your examples Working in pairs Choose a basic sentence for both of you to work with. Roll the dice and follow the instructions. Let your partner check your new sentence. Score: 1point if you correctly add an adjective. 1 point if you correctly add an adverb 2 points if you correctly add a prepositional phrase 2 points if correctly embed a clause. Add up all the points if you get the chance to shine! The winner
is the On the dice person with the highest number of points whenan time is called. 1=add The game adjective 2= add an adverb
3 = add a prepositional phrase 4= embed a clause. Sentences to improve The boy ran. The sun shone. The horse galloped. The candle flickered. The crowd cheered. The cat climbed.
Time to show what you know! The wolf howled. Can you add an adjective? Can you add an adverb? Can you add a prepositional phrase? Can you embed a clause
In your pairs, see if you can shine! Back to Grammar Back to Punctuation Nouns Lets look at these words and see if we can spot the nouns. Click on the words to see if its a noun. Nouns
noun noun not not not noun Verbs Lets look at these words and see if we
can spot the verbs. Click on the words to see if its a verb. Verbs verb verb not not not
verb Adjectives Lets look at these words and see if we can spot the adjective. Click on the words to see if its a adjective. Adjective not adjectiv not
adjective adjective not Adverbs Lets look at these words and see if we can spot the adverbs. Click on the words to see if its an adverb. adverb s not
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