SESSION OVERVIEW Principles & Practices of Equality Public
SESSION OVERVIEW Principles & Practices of Equality Public Service Management Human Resource Management 1 It is through synergy of Public Service
Management and Human Resource Management that principles and practices of equality of opportunities as regards recruitment, promotion, training, career development and other conditions of service are maintained GENDER SENSITISATION objective to improve delivery of public service
by coordinating Government Ministries, Independent Departments and Other Agencies to achieve unity of purpose and direction in the process of integrating gender concerns 2 GENDER SENSITISATION Session aims at explaining concept and related jargon gender equality a global concern legislation and bills pressed into service to ensure human rights in every sphere of life, including public service. 3 GENDER SENSITISATION
-Definition Gender psychological term our awareness and reaction to biological sex 4 determined by biological, psychological and sociological factors Masculine and feminine are psychological terms which refer to a person's gender
Sex biological term functional differences between males and females and their reproductive potential determined by genes male and female are biological terms GENDER - Composition consists of several elements
below two aspects elements are interrelated, which we will discuss in the session Role -adoption of masculine or feminine behavioral traits that are deemed appropriate or characteristic of a particular sex Gender Identity - person's private, subjective sense of their own sex Gender 5 GENDER SENSITISATION Plays a crucial role in Gender mainstreaming - as it is of utmost
importance in Public Service Evaluation of all public service policies, programmes and activities as gender sensitive Public Service is effective in its planning, implementation, monitoring reforms 6 recruitment, retention and development of the best available people and as such realise the goal of an effective and professional public service
GENDER SENSITISATION It will help in Reviewing existing policies, rules, regulations and procedures with a view to encompassing gender values, needs and aspirations To formulate Gender Perspective Guidelines To plan, implement, monitor and evaluate gender specific initiatives To coordinate and monitor gender activities in all ministries 7 GENDER ROLES Definition
8 Behavior or tasks done with some expectation or self-consciousness about being female or male Engagement in similar and different roles, depending on world view, established lines of authority, developed skills, or motivation Traditional and current stereotypes tend to assign women's roles to private spheres and men's to more public ones roles which are classified by sex, where this classification is social and not biological Gender Roles
Traditional and current stereotypes tend to assign women's roles to private spheres and men's to more public ones female roles - cooking, washing clothes, ensuring basic needs at household level, caring for children etc., are classified as traditional tendency to view men's participation in housework and child-rearing as unmanly In Indian Defence forces women are preferably appointed towards desk jobs male applicants are entrusted more challenging are productive faculties
9 GENDER EQUALITY means that there is no discrimination on grounds of a persons sex in the allocation of resources or benefits, or in the access to services 10 GENDER EQUALITY Right of Equality is a Fundamental right A "gender-equal society" is a "society in which both men and women, as
equal members, have the opportunity to participate in all kinds of social activities at will, equally enjoy political, economical and cultural benefits, and share responsibilities" 11 GENDER EQUALITY 12 dictated by cultural factors
gender biases, exist in every sector prejudiced notions of gender-based roles devaluates the person, groups and communities Gender equality is a task in progress not something that has been achieved anywhere on this planet GENDER DIFFERENTIATION In relation to work In valuation of work
Men hold high status positions and women tend to fill the roles of support persons In sharing of world resources 13 It is most of the times undervalued In public spheres Women have longer working days than men,
at work and then at home Women earn 1/10 of worlds income for doing 2/3 of worlds work GENDER DISCRIMINATION Equality for all citizens irrespective of gender, caste, religion or race forms as per Constitution BUT India is still a society with a strong preference for sons. gender discrimination are not just peripheral phenomenon but as statistics show sparingly widespread 14
Sex ratio Number of women per 1000 men Source: Census of India 2001 15 DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN INDIAN EXPERIENCE The principle of gender equality provides for equality before the law and equal protection of the law, prohibition of discrimination and equality of opportunity in public employment Still many anomalies remain under different laws
16 Political Participation 17 Indian women played a major role in the freedom movement, it did not translate into continued participation in public life in the post-independence era Representation of women in the state legislatures and in Parliament is low 81st Amendment Bill, drafted in 1996, that proposes the reservation of one-third of
seats in the Lok Sabha, still pending for passing Political participation The Year 2001 was announced by the Indian government as Women's Empowerment Year The National Commission for Women was set up in 1992 ; BUT "No amount of legislation will be effective as long as the political will to promote gender equity is absent." 18 Role of Government
19 in raising awareness; developing strategies; sharing information; monitoring, implementing and strengthening equal opportunities for women to find common ground and goals to improve the situation of women at work Promoting policies on the prevention of sexual harassment and other forms of discrimination systematically reviewing legislation
LEGISLATIVE SAFEGUARDS -India a party to Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination since 1968 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 20 LEGISLATIVE SAFEGUARDS o
o 21 Article 15 of Constitution Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth The National Commission for Women set up as a statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990 Passage of constitutional amendments to reserve for women 33 per cent of the seats in the Panchayati Raj Women Employees in Central Government special Provisions available are
Age relaxation for widows and women separated from their husbands for appointments in Group C & D posts. Exemption from requirement of educational qualification in respect of widows of deceased Government servants appointed on compassionate grounds to posts of peons. Guidelines for posting husband and wife at the same station. Maternity leave benefits and guidelines for provision of crche facilities, etc. 5 days paternity leave for the husbands.
22 SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT THE WORKPLACE reality of the situation on the ground for women and members of vulnerable groups continues to be extremely harsh despite the Constitutional, legislative and administrative framework in place in India failure to implement protective provisions and continuing gender biases within society ensures that Constitutional and legal safeguards are rendered meaningless to many
23 SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT THE WORKPLACE -contd. 1997 Supreme Court Judgement on Sexual Harassment at Workplace, (Vishakha Vs. State of Rajasthan) every employer required to provide for effective complaints procedures and remedies including awarding of compensation to women victims. In sexual harassment complaints, the authorities urged to expedite cases and the disposal is monitored. 24 SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT THE WORKPLACE -contd.
Rule 3(C) concerns the prohibition of sexual harassment of working women Enjoins the Government servant 25 not to indulge in any act of sexual harassment of any women in the workplace in-charge of a workplace to take appropriate steps to prevent sexual harassment to any woman at such work
SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT THE WORKPLACE -contd. Sexual harassment includes physical contact and advances; demand or request for sexual favours; sexually coloured remarks; showing any pornography; any unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of a sexual nature. 26 GUIDELINES OF SUPREME COURT - on sexual harassment
27 Duty of the employer to prevent or deter the commission of acts of sexual harassment and to provide for the resolution, settlement or prosecution of acts of sexual harassment Criminal proceedings to be initiated in appropriate cases Where such conduct amounts to misconduct, appropriate disciplinary action to be initiated by the employer GUIDELINES OF SUPREME COURT - on sexual harassment Complaint mechanism should be created in every organisation Employees should be allowed to raise
issues of sexual harassment Third party harassment employer to take necessary steps and preventive action Victims can opt for transfer of the perpetrator or their own 28 Responsibility of Government 29 mistakenly perceived as applying only when
state agents or officials are the actual perpetrators of acts which violate human rights; BUT Government should "exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State or by private persons". Misuse of the scheme Bad workers often resort to frivolous complaints against fellow workers to cover up their bad quality of work or inadequacies in their day to day functioning. The committee can take deterrent action against such malicious complaints. 30
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