Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of

Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of

Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: Inquiring About the World of Life Evolution is the process of change that has

transformed life on Earth Biology is the scientific study of life Biologists ask questions such as: How a single cell develops into an organism How the human mind works How living things interact in communities Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Life defies a simple, one-sentence definition Life is recognized by what living things do Video: Seahorse Camouflage Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 1-3 Order Response to the environment Evolutionary adaptation Regulation Energy processing

Reproduction Growth and development Concept 1.1: Themes connect the concepts of biology Biology consists of more than memorizing factual details Themes help to organize biological information Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Evolution, the Overarching Theme of Biology

Evolution makes sense of everything we know about living organisms Organisms living on Earth are modified descendents of common ancestors Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Theme: New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy Life can be studied at different levels from molecules to the entire living planet The study of life can be divided into different levels of biological organization

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-4 The biosphere Cells 10 m Organs and organ systems Cell Ecosystems Organelles

Communities 1 m Tissues Atoms 50 m Molecules Populations Organisms

Emergent Properties Emergent properties result from the arrangement and interaction of parts within a system Emergent properties characterize nonbiological entities as well For example, a functioning bicycle emerges only when all of the necessary parts connect in the correct way Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Power and Limitations of Reductionism Reductionism is the reduction of complex

systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study For example, the molecular structure of DNA An understanding of biology balances reductionism with the study of emergent properties For example, new understanding comes from studying the interactions of DNA with other molecules Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Systems Biology A system is a combination of components that

function together Systems biology constructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems The systems approach poses questions such as: How does a drug for blood pressure affect other organs? How does increasing CO2 alter the biosphere? Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Theme: Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy Every organism interacts with its environment, including nonliving factors and other organisms

Both organisms and their environments are affected by the interactions between them For example, a tree takes up water and minerals from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air; the tree releases oxygen to the air and roots help form soil Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ecosystem Dynamics The dynamics of an ecosystem include two major processes: Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil

The flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-5 Sunlight Ecosystem Cycling of chemical

nutrients Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Heat Chemical energy Consumers (such as animals) Heat

Energy Conversion Work requires a source of energy Energy can be stored in different forms, for example, light, chemical, kinetic, or thermal The energy exchange between an organism and its environment often involves energy transformations Energy flows through an ecosystem, usually entering as light and exiting as heat Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Theme: Structure and function are correlated at all

levels of biological organization Structure and function of living organisms are closely related For example, a leaf is thin and flat, maximizing the capture of light by chloroplasts Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-6 (a) Wings (b) Bones Infoldings of

membrane Mitochondrion 100 m (c) Neurons 0.5 m (d) Mitochondria Theme: Cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function The cell is the lowest level of organization that

can perform all activities required for life All cells: Are enclosed by a membrane Use DNA as their genetic information The ability of cells to divide is the basis of all reproduction, growth, and repair of multicellular organisms Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings A eukaryotic cell has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus By comparison, a prokaryotic cell is simpler

and usually smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic; plants, animals, fungi, and all other forms of life are eukaryotic Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotic cell Fig. 1-8 Eukaryotic cell Membrane

DNA (no nucleus) Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus (contains DNA) 1 m Theme: The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA

Chromosomes contain most of a cells genetic material in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) DNA is the substance of genes Genes are the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings DNA Structure and Function Each chromosome has one long DNA molecule with hundreds or thousands of genes DNA is inherited by offspring from their parents DNA controls the development and

maintenance of organisms Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-9 Sperm cell Nuclei containing DNA Egg cell Fertilized egg

with DNA from both parents Embryos cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains arranged in a double helix Each link of a chain is one of four kinds of chemical building blocks called nucleotides

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Genes control protein production indirectly DNA is transcribed into RNA then translated into a protein An organisms genome is its entire set of genetic instructions Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Systems Biology at the Levels of Cells and Molecules The human genome and those of many other organisms have been sequenced using DNAsequencing machines Knowledge of a cells genes and proteins can

be integrated using a systems approach Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-12 Outer membrane and cell surface Cytoplasm Nucleus Advances in systems biology at the cellular and molecular level depend on

High-throughput technology, which yields enormous amounts of data Bioinformatics, which is the use of computational tools to process a large volume of data Interdisciplinary research teams Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Theme: Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems Feedback mechanisms allow biological processes to self-regulate Negative feedback means that as more of a

product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced Positive feedback means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced Animation: Negative Feedback Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Animation: Positive Feedback Fig. 1-13 Negative feedback

A Enzyme 1 B Excess D blocks a step D D Enzyme 2 D

C Enzyme 3 D (a) Negative feedback W Enzyme 4 Positive feedback + Excess Z stimulates a step

Z X Enzyme 5 Y Z Z Enzyme 6 Z (b) Positive feedback

Concept 1.2: The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolutionTheodosius Dobzhansky Evolution unifies biology at different scales of size throughout the history of life on Earth Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Organizing the Diversity of Life Approximately 1.8 million species have been identified and named to date, and thousands more are identified each year

Estimates of the total number of species that actually exist range from 10 million to over 100 million Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Grouping Species: The Basic Idea Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and classifies species into groups of increasing breadth Domains, followed by kingdoms, are the broadest units of classification Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 1-14 Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Ursus americanus (American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Mammalia

Chordata Animalia Eukarya The Three Domains of Life The three-domain system is currently used, and replaces the old five-kingdom system Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea comprise the prokaryotes Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotic organisms

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-15 (a) DOMAIN BACTERIA (b) DOMAIN ARCHAEA (c) DOMAIN EUKARYA Protists Kingdom

Plantae Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia The domain Eukarya includes three multicellular kingdoms: Plantae Fungi Animalia Other eukaryotic organisms were formerly grouped into a kingdom called Protista, though these are now often grouped into many

separate kingdoms Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-15c Protists Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi (c) DOMAIN EUKARYA Kingdom Animalia

Unity in the Diversity of Life A striking unity underlies the diversity of life; for example: DNA is the universal genetic language common to all organisms Unity is evident in many features of cell structure Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-16 15 m

5 m Cilia of Paramecium Cilia of windpipe cells 0.1 m Cross section of a cilium, as viewed with an electron microscope

Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection Fossils and other evidence document the evolution of life on Earth over billions of years Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-17 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859 Darwin made two main points: Species showed evidence of descent with modification from common ancestors

Natural selection is the mechanism behind descent with modification Darwins theory explained the duality of unity and diversity Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Darwin observed that: Individuals in a population have traits that vary Many of these traits are heritable (passed from parents to offspring) More offspring are produced than survive Competition is inevitable Species generally suit their environment

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Darwin inferred that: Individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce Over time, more individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits In other words, the natural environment selects for beneficial traits Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 1-20 1 Population with varied inherited traits. 2 Elimination of individuals with certain

traits. 3 Reproduction of survivors. 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and

reproductive success. Natural selection is often evident in adaptations of organisms to their way of life and environment Bat wings are an example of adaptation Video: Soaring Hawk Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Tree of Life Unity in diversity arises from descent with modification

For example, the forelimb of the bat, human, horse and the whale flipper all share a common skeletal architecture Fossils provide additional evidence of anatomical unity from descent with modification Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Darwin proposed that natural selection could cause an ancestral species to give rise to two or more descendent species For example, the finch species of the Galpagos Islands

Evolutionary relationships are often illustrated with tree-like diagrams that show ancestors and their descendents Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-22 Insect-eaters Gray warbler finch Certhidea fusca Bud-eater

Seed-eater Warbler finches COMMON ANCESTOR Green warbler finch Certhidea olivacea Sharp-beaked ground finch Geospiza difficilis

Vegetarian finch Platyspiza crassirostris Mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates Insect-eaters Tree finches Woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida Medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper

Large tree finch Camarhynchus psittacula Seed-eaters Ground finches Cactus-flowereaters Small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus Large cactus

ground finch Geospiza conirostris Cactus ground finch Geospiza scandens Small ground finch Geospiza fuliginosa Medium ground finch Geospiza fortis Large ground finch Geospiza magnirostris Concept 1.3: Scientists use two main forms of inquiry in their study of nature

The word Science is derived from Latin and means to know Inquiry is the search for information and explanation There are two main types of scientific inquiry: discovery science and hypothesis-based science Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Discovery Science Discovery science describes natural structures and processes This approach is based on observation and the

analysis of data Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Types of Data Data are recorded observations or items of information Data fall into two categories Qualitative, or descriptions rather than measurements Quantitative, or recorded measurements, which are sometimes organized into tables and graphs

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Induction in Discovery Science Inductive reasoning draws conclusions through the logical process of induction Repeat specific observations can lead to important generalizations For example, the sun always rises in the east Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Hypothesis-Based Science Observations can lead us to ask questions and propose hypothetical explanations called

hypotheses Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Role of Hypotheses in Inquiry A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a wellframed question A scientific hypothesis leads to predictions that can be tested by observation or experimentation Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings For example, Observation: Your flashlight doesnt work

Question: Why doesnt your flashlight work? Hypothesis 1: The batteries are dead Hypothesis 2: The bulb is burnt out Both these hypotheses are testable Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-24 Observations Question

Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem

Test prediction Test prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis Deduction: The IfThen Logic of Hypothesis Based Science Deductive reasoning uses general premises to make specific predictions For example, if organisms are made of cells (premise 1), and humans are organisms (premise 2), then humans are composed of cells (deductive prediction)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings A Closer Look at Hypotheses in Scientific Inquiry A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable Hypothesis-based science often makes use of two or more alternative hypotheses Failure to falsify a hypothesis does not prove that hypothesis For example, you replace your flashlight bulb, and it now works; this supports the hypothesis that your bulb was burnt out, but does not prove it (perhaps the first bulb was inserted incorrectly)

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Myth of the Scientific Method The scientific method is an idealized process of inquiry Hypothesis-based science is based on the textbook scientific method but rarely follows all the ordered steps Discovery science has made important contributions with very little dependence on the so-called scientific method Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Mimicry in Snake Populations Many poisonous species are brightly colored, which warns potential predators Mimics are harmless species that closely resemble poisonous species Henry Bates hypothesized that this mimicry evolved in harmless species as an evolutionary adaptation that reduces their chances of being eaten Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings This hypothesis was tested with the poisonous

eastern coral snake and its mimic the nonpoisonous scarlet kingsnake Both species live in the Carolinas, but the kingsnake is also found in regions without poisonous coral snakes If predators inherit an avoidance of the coral snakes coloration, then the colorful kingsnake will be attacked less often in the regions where coral snakes are present Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-25 Scarlet kingsnake (nonpoisonous)

Key Range of scarlet kingsnake only Overlapping ranges of scarlet kingsnake and eastern coral snake North Carolina South Carolina Eastern coral snake (poisonous)

Scarlet kingsnake (nonpoisonous) Field Experiments with Artificial Snakes To test this mimicry hypothesis, researchers made hundreds of artificial snakes: An experimental group resembling kingsnakes A control group resembling plain brown snakes Equal numbers of both types were placed at field sites, including areas without poisonous coral snakes Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

After four weeks, the scientists retrieved the artificial snakes and counted bite or claw marks The data fit the predictions of the mimicry hypothesis: the ringed snakes were attacked less frequently in the geographic region where coral snakes were found Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1-27 RESULTS Percent of total attacks

on artificial snakes 100 84% 83% 80 60 40 20 17% 16%

0 Coral snakes absent Coral snakes present Artificial kingsnakes Brown artificial snakes

Designing Controlled Experiments A controlled experiment compares an experimental group (the artificial kingsnakes) with a control group (the artificial brown snakes) Ideally, only the variable of interest (the color pattern of the artificial snakes) differs between the control and experimental groups A controlled experiment means that control groups are used to cancel the effects of unwanted variables A controlled experiment does not mean that all unwanted variables are kept constant Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Limitations of Science

In science, observations and experimental results must be repeatable Science cannot support or falsify supernatural explanations, which are outside the bounds of science Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Theories in Science In the context of science, a theory is: Broader in scope than a hypothesis General, and can lead to new testable hypotheses Supported by a large body of evidence in

comparison to a hypothesis Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Model Building in Science Models are representations of natural phenomena and can take the form of: Diagrams Three-dimensional objects Computer programs Mathematical equations Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 1-28 From body From lungs Right atrium Left atrium

Right ventricle Left ventricle To lungs To body The Culture of Science Most scientists work in teams, which often include graduate and undergraduate students Good communication is important in order to

share results through seminars, publications, and websites Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Science, Technology, and Society The goal of science is to understand natural phenomena The goal of technology is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose Science and technology are interdependent Biology is marked by discoveries, while technology is marked by inventions

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The combination of science and technology has dramatic effects on society For example, the discovery of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick allowed for advances in DNA technology such as testing for hereditary diseases Ethical issues can arise from new technology, but have as much to do with politics, economics, and cultural values as with science and technology Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Fig. 1-UN1 Fig. 1-UN3 Producers Consumers Fig. 1-UN8 Population of organisms

Hereditary variations Overproduction and competition Environmental factors Differences in reproductive success of individuals Evolution of adaptations in the population

Fig. 1-UN9 You should now be able to: 1. Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences 2. Distinguish among the three domains of life, and the eukaryotic kingdoms 3. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: discovery science and hypothesisbased science, quantitative and qualitative data, inductive and deductive reasoning, science and technology Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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