Green Chemistry as a Recent Trend in Pharmacy

Green Chemistry as a Recent Trend in Pharmacy

Green Chemistry as a Recent Trend in Pharmacy Education to Afford Pharmaceutical Products Presented By Prof. Dr. Salwa Elmeligie Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University Egypt I am 1. Professor & Head of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. 2. Member of technical office at National Authority of Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education (NAQAAE), Egypt. 3. Trainer in Faculty and Leadership Development Center, Cairo University.

4. Evaluator at Project administration, Ministry of Higher Education. 5. Consultant at missions and Cultural Affairs at the Ministry of Higher Education. 6- Member of strategic plan committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. Other Posts: 1. Reviewer for Higher Education Institutions, conducted by NAQAAE. 2. Member of Council of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. Prof. Salwa Elmeligie 02/27/20

3 Performance objectives To highlight The role of organic chemistry in pharmacy. Emergence of green chemistry. Green chemistry education. Applications in pharmacy. 02/27/20 4 The role of organic chemistry

in pharmacy 02/27/20 5 Organic chemistry is the base of pharmacy, without chemistry a pharmacist can not understand the chemical formulae of the drugs and the design of new drugs. In this way a pharmacist can not practice the field of pharmacy without a plentiful knowledge about chemistry. 02/27/20 Dr Narendra Babu, doctorjob.com.my

6 Additionally, organic chemistry deals with life and life processes, being associated with nearly every aspect of our existence. All the key molecules of life, such as DNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, are organic compounds, furnishing the energy that sustains life. 02/27/20 https://www.ntnu.edu/studies/mschem/organic-chemistry 7

The citric acid cycle also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 02/27/20 8 Anthraquinone glycosides possess anthracene or their

derivatives as aglycone. 02/27/20 9 The foundation of the pharmaceutical industry includes of a group of highly skilled chemists. The manufacturing of bulk drugs or commercial drugs involves the direct supervision of chemists, who are involved in the R&D process of pharmaceuticals where new drugs are designed and synthesized. The manufacturing of dosage forms like tablets, capsules and injections has to be done under the strict supervision of qualified pharmacists. 02/27/20

Dr Narendra Babu, doctorjob.com.my 10 The Emergence of green chemistry 02/27/20 12 Green Chemistry has evolved in 1991 from its roots in

academic research to become a mainstream practice supported by academia, industry and government. Green chemistry, is also called benign chemistry or clean chemistry for sustainability. The success of green chemistry depends on the training and education of a new generation of chemists. 02/27/20 Dennis L.Hjeresen, David L.Schutt and Janet M.Boese, JChemEdmchem.wisc.edu., 77, 2000, 1543-1547 13 Chemistry has an important role to

play in achieving a sustainable civilization on earth. 02/27/20 14 Dr. Terry Collins Generally, as human beings are part of the environment, the way in which we interact with our environment influences the quality of our lives. Sustainable development (the goal)

Industrial ecology Green Chemistry a tool Green chemistry education 02/27/20 Green chemistry, lies at the heart of the industrial ecology UNESCO conference on ESD , Bonn, Germany, 2009 15

Green chemistry education 02/27/20 16 Working in the pharmaceutical industry is challenging. The graduate needs to have both interpersonal and intrapersonal skills to work with other colleagues. In addition to a bachelor's degree, graduates have to be trained in Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). 02/27/20

Dr Narendra Babu, doctorjob.com.my 17 Green chemistry: challenges and prospectives 02/27/20 18 Learning objectives To conceptualize the sustainability for green chemistry and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)* which allows every graduate to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a

sustainable career future. * UNESCO is the lead agency for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014). 02/27/20 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/educationfor-sustainable-development/ 19 To understand how to apply this concept in our research fields of interest aiming to safe our enviroment. To think prospectively about how to change our education subjects to be sustainable learning tools by investigating examples of green chemistry applications relevant to students .

To understand the important role of the green chemistry and how to deal with it in our practical life. 02/27/20 20 UNESCO conference on ESD , Bonn, Germany, 2009 Strategies to integrate green chemistry into an already crowded brown chemistry curriculum Changing our mind set and applying the green concept in classroom, laboratory, manufacture and the surrounding environment. Involving students in the process of greening the curriculum.

Modernizing the curriculum using the latest green chemistry developments. Replacing rather than adding course materials. 02/27/20 21 http://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/pubs/educat.html/ Finding experiments that illustrate green chemistry concepts and are effective in the teaching labs. Developing interactive Teaching Units (ITU) which have been developed specifically to introduce undergraduate students to green chemistry. Encouraging chemistry students to consider the principles of green chemistry when designing processes and choosing

reagents. 02/27/20 22 Twelve principles of green chemistry 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. Prevention. Atom Economy. Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis. Designing Safer Chemical. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries. Design for Energy Efficiency. Use of Renewable Feedstock. Reduce derivatives. Catalysis. Design for degradation. Real-time analysis for pollution prevention.

Inherently safer chemistry for Accident Prevention. Matthew A. Albrecht, Cameron W. Evans and Colin L. Raston, (2006), The Royal Society of Chemistry , 8, 417432. 23 Emitting legislation in favour of green chemistry. Giving award to green chemistry users. Giving grants to green chemistry research/development. Developing educational activities in green chemistry. Organizing conferences seminars and works for green chemistry. Establishing good relationship with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Helping others learn from our experience. 02/27/20

Green chemistry education: A strategy for environmental control and sustainability, Omiko Akani (Ph.D) 24 The green chemistry institute A major force in taking the concept and the practice of green chemistry around the world has been the Green Chemistry Institute (GCI). Created in 1997, the Institute flourished by promoting and fostering the furtherance of Green Chemistry through research, education conferences/deliberative symposia/ meetings and information dissemination including public awareness. In 2001, the Green Chemistry Institute became part of the

American Chemical Society. The two organizations joined to pursue their joint interests in the discovery and design of chemical products and processes that eliminate generation and use of hazardous substances. 02/27/20 Dennis L.Hjeresen, David L.Schutt and Janet M.Boese, JChemEdmchem.wisc.edu., 77, 2000, 1543-1547 25 American Chemical Society Green Chemistry Institute ACS Green Chemistry Institute Its mission is to catalyze and enable the implementation of green chemistry and engineering throughout the global chemical

enterprise through: Performing assignments and group presentations. Using standards guidelines and ACS approval program. Using safety ACS guidelines to incorporate safe practices into your teaching curriculum. 02/27/20 http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/greenchemistry.html 26 Green chemistry techniques For example

Reactions in alternative solvents. Atom economic multi-component reactions. Microwave. Ultrasonic reactions. Flow reactions. 02/27/20 27 02/27/20

28 Specifically designed and equipped to streamline The new lab is equipped with modern chemistry Designed discussion space within

the lab facilitate workflow, allowing students to spend theirtotime in lab 29 instruments. more productively. 02/27/20 collaborative, students discussions. In addition to creating a safer work environment, the green Additional The lab

green features features include an "green" fume Which willalso save tens of state-of-the-art thousands of in-house gallons

ofvacuum waterhoods each hoods use high-tech filters to clean and recirculate the lab for students to work in.be used to operate water aspirators. yearsystem. that would otherwise air. 02/27/20 30

Applications in pharmacy 02/27/20 31 Nanomaterials used as nanomedicines with green synthesis Nanomaterial Clinical use Green synthesis Gold

Cancer therapy, diagnosis From plant extracts, From Bacteria Silver Anti-microbial activity Almond leaves, Tannic acid Iron oxide

MRI contrast, diagnostic From tea leaf extract, Bacteria Zinc oxide Anti -bacterial activity From plant extracts Carbon Nanotubes Toxicology studies,

cancer Using Camphor, Biodiesel (plant) 02/27/20 Betty Y.S. Kim, James T. Rutka and Warren C.W. Chan, (2010), Journal of medicine, 363, 2434-2443. Green synthesis of some nanomedicines Gold nanoparticles TEA LEAF EMBLICA OFFICINALE

From plant extract EDIBLE MUSHROOM TAMARINDUS INDICA Silver nanoparticles ALMOND LEAVES 02/27/20 HONEY

ALOE VERA TANNIC ACID Betty Y.S. Kim, James T. Rutka and Warren C.W. Chan, (2010), Journal of medicine, 363, 2434-2443. 34 TAML Catalyst Features Formed from biochemically common elements. prototype exhibits v. low toxicity. Beginning of dial-a-lifetime catalysis. Economical to synthesize. Water-soluble.

Usable from pH 1 to 13. Efficient users of peroxide. fast peroxidase/slow catalase 10 US patents, >70 counting foreign nationalizations . Effective at 0.1 to 4 ppm = nM to low M. Amenable to modifications for capturing novel selectivity. Currently being produced for small scale commercial uses. 02/27/20 35 Indeed, the most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceutical products is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in

researches involving synthetic chemistry. 02/27/20 36 Currently, our interest in Cairo University is focused in adopting and applying green chemistry principles as a recent trend in pharmaceutical teaching and learning methods for graduate students in pharmaceutical organic chemistry courses. Also, green chemistry is applied in our Faculty research plan (2012-2017) for postgraduate students to afford pharmaceutical products. The first trial was in 2007, since we designed and synthesized anticancer compounds structurally related to combretastatin that

bind to tubulin at colchicine binding site through applying green chemistry. 02/27/20 37 Combretastatin A4 Phosphate (CA4P) Combretastatins (CA1-4), as natural antimitotic agents, were isolated from the bark of the South African tree Combretum caffrum. 02/27/20 Pettit, G.; Singh, S.; Boyd, M.; Hamel, E.; Pettit, R.; Schmidt, J. and Hogan, F.; J. Med. Chem., 38, 1666 (1995).

38 So, one of our compounds is the diaryl cyclohexene dreivative (3) which was synthesized with green solvents, reagents and consuming less time to exhibit its potent in- vitro cytotoxicity . O O S Ethanol 1

O O O Microwave NaOH S 2 OCH3 OCH3

S 3 OCH3 OCH3 Currently, CA4P as an anticancer drug is in Phase III to evaluate the safety and efficacy standards. CA4P 02/27/20 39

Conclusion Applying the concept of green chemistry in education is built on understanding the needs of pharmaceutical industries and laboratories that have an important role in pharmacy to achieve good manufacture products with the following advantages : 02/27/20 40 Preventing pollution before it happens rather than cleaning up the mess later. Saving pharmaceutical companies money by using less energy and fewer/safer chemicals, thus reducing costs & impacts of pollution.

Mitigating climate change, water & resource depletion, & growing demands for safer products and cleaner energy. 02/27/20 http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/acsdisplay.html?DOC=education\ greenchem\cases.html 41 Recommendations Our goal is a graduate capable of competing in the labor market and providing pharmaceutical services in all aspects, thereby enhancing the quality use of medicine. So, our vision is that the philosophy and practice of green chemistry education to be spread as a part of pharmacy

ethics to balance eco-development profitable for society and a healthy environment . 02/27/20 42 02/27/20 43 02/27/20 44

02/27/20 45

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