Ch 3 Minerals Worlds largest diamond mine Layers of the Earth Crust (8 to 32 km) Mantle (2900 km) Liquid Core(2250 km) Solid Core (1300 km) Core
1. Solid Inner Core: Made of solid Nickel and Iron Under great pressure resulting in a solid form. Iron causes the Earth to be magnetic 5000 degrees Celsius 2. Liquid Outer Core
Made of liquid Nickel and Iron 2200 degrees Celsius Mantle
Molten, liquid rock (Magma) Makes up about 80% of Earths volume Ranges from 870 to 2200 degrees Celsius Crust and Mantle divided by the Moho Boundary Crust
Very thin, solid layer of rock Made of mostly Silicon & Oxygen (75%) What are Minerals?
Naturally occurring not man-made, in the earth Inorganic doesnt come from living things Always a solid has volume and shape
Definite chemical composition made of a single pure substance or element Crystalline form flat sides, sharp edges & corners Formation & Composition
As hot magma cools, the minerals will crystallize. If the magma cools very slowly it forms large crystals. If it cools very quickly it forms tiny to microscopic crystals.
Some mineral crystals will form compounds dissolved in liquids. Minerals will be left behind when the liquid evaporates.
The eight most common elements in the crust form a large number of the known minerals. (O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, & Mg) The compound formed by Silicon & Oxygen is known as Silicate. Mineral Identification
The identification of a mineral is based on its physical properties 1. Color Some minerals have characteristic colors Some minerals can come in several different color varieties EX: Quartz & Corundum
Some of the colors can change due to temperature, pollution, or radiation. 2. Luster The way a mineral reflects light off its surface. 2 types A. Metallic very shiny, looks like a metal B. Non-metallic Glassy shiny, transparent, translucent
A mineral that is higher on the scale will scratch the mineral that is lower. Other common items have been given ratings on the scale for identification purposes. EX: Fingernail, Penny, File, Glass
4. Streak The color of the powder scraped off a mineral when rubbed against a rough surface (streak plate.) Very useful property for showing the TRUE
color. Same color always, no matter what the variation 5. Breakage 2 types a. Cleavage - breaks in smooth, definite surfaces Same every time b. Fracture - breaks in rough or jagged surfaces
6. Crystal Form Geometric crystals with flat surfaces and definite edges
Cubic Hexagonal Tetragonal Orthorhombic Monoclinic Triclinic Different from cleavage 7. Other Properties
1. 2. 3. 4. Reaction to Acid some minerals will bubble in acid Magnetism some special minerals will be magnetic
Sulfur Smell some will have distinct odors Taste some have a distinct taste Halite Calcite Mineral Groups 1. Silicates Most common mineral family Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (SiO4)
along with additional elements. Joined together into chains, sheets, or 3-demensional networks. EXAMPLES: Feldspars, Quartz, Micas 2. Carbonates Carbonates are used in cement & lime. Made of Carbonate (CO3) with other elements. EXAMPLES: Calcite & Dolomite
3. Halides Used in steel making, fertilizer, & salt EXAMPLES: Halite & Fluorite 4. Sulfates Used in plaster. Made of Sulfate (SO4) with other elements. EXAMPLE: Gypsum 5. Oxides
Have Oxygen as a major component. EXAMPLES: Hematite, Magnetite, Corundum, & Ice 6. Native Elements Minerals of great economic value that are pure elements. EXAMPLES: Gold, Silver, Diamond (C), Sulfur, Graphite (C), Copper, Platinum
Uses for Minerals 1. Ores Minerals or combinations of minerals from which metals and nonmetals can be removed in usable amounts. Examples: Cinnabar (Mercury), Bauxite (Aluminum), Hematite (Iron) Smelting- when an ore is heated so that a metal can be separated from it.
Alloys- when pure metals are combined to form other metallic substances. (Steel & Brass) 2. Gemstones Minerals that are hard, beautiful, and durable. They are substances that can be cut & polished for jewelry &
decoration. a. Precious Stones The rarest & most valuable. Ex: Diamonds, Rubies, Opals, Sapphires, & Emeralds b. Semiprecious Stones The other gemstones
Ex: Amethysts, Zircons, Garnets, Turquoises, Jades, & more c. Non-Mineral Gemstones Come from living things Ex: Amber, Pearls, & Coral
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