Mobile Asphalt Testing Trailer Program (MATT): Recent Experience

Mobile Asphalt Testing Trailer Program (MATT): Recent Experience

Mobile Asphalt Testing Trailer Program (MATT): Recent Experience in Arizona Image Here All images FHWA unless otherwise noted. Arizona Pavements/Materials Conference November 15, 2018 Tempe, AZ Office of Infrastructure Amir Golalipour, Ph.D.

David J. Mensching, Ph.D., P.E. Office of Preconstruction, Construction, and Pavements Agenda 2 FHWA Pavement and Materials Binder Activities Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT) Arizona Project Results & Discussions Questions

Acronyms 3 AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ABCD: Asphalt Binder Cracking Device ABTL: Asphalt Binder Testing Laboratory AIMS: Aggregate Imaging System AMPT: Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester BBR: Bending Beam Rheometer CAA: Coarse Aggregate Angularity

CC: Concentric Cylinders DSR: Dynamic Shear Rheometer DTT: Direct Tension Tester ETG: Expert Task Group Gmb: Bulk Specific Gravity GTR: Ground tire rubber HMA: Hot mix asphalt HQ: Headquarters MATT: Mobile Asphalt Testing Trailer MSCR: Multiple Stress Creep and

Recovery PAV: Pressure Aging Vessel PEMD: Performance-Engineered Mixture Design PG: Performance Grading

PRS: Performance Related Specification QA: Quality Assurance RAP/RAS: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement/ Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles RTFO: Rolling Thin-film Oven RV: Rotational Viscometer SSR: Stress Sweep Rutting TFHRC: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center WMA: Warm Mix Asphalt Note: FHWA does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers names appear in this presentation solely for informational purposes.

Pavement & Materials Discipline 4 Program Office Office of Preconstruction, Construction, and Pavements (FHWA HQ, Washington, DC) Mobile Asphalt Testing Trailer (MATT) Asphalt Binder Testing Laboratory (ABTL) Research and Development

TFHRC (McLean, VA) Technical Services Resource Center Divisions Program Objective 5 Provide Support to National Initiatives Performance-Engineered Mixture Design (PEMD) Increased Pavement Density

Development of New QA Concepts for HMA Understanding Asphalt Rubber Testing Binder Performance Testing Provide Assistance with State-specific Issues Technical Guidance Forensics MATT Program History 6 Projects began in 1988 Demonstration Project 74: Field Management of Asphalt Mixes Using Volumetric Quality Control Transition to Superpave implementation

Early 1990s Classroom and hands-on training Transition to performance-related specifications Shadow testing AMPT user since 2003 Innovative materials and practices WMA, SMA, GTR, RAP/RAS, increased density

MATT visits since 2007 7 PR Field Work Workshop/Hands-on Training/Presentation/ Open House/Technical Assistance Both Technical Workshops 8

Training 9 Training for the Maryland State Highway Administration staff Field visits 10 Other MATT Activities 11 Conferences Expert task group support

NCHRP panels and project participation Division Office rotational assignments Academic journal papers and presentations Deployment Status: Asphalt Rubber 12 Seven projects between 2013 to 2015 Collaboration with four State DOTs to evaluate their specifications based on project results Working with FHWA ETG to develop AASHTO standard for asphalt rubber testing

13 Binder Activities Binder Characterization 14 TEST PROCEDURES EQUIPMENT Performance Grading AASHTO M 320

AASHTO M 332 (MSCR) AASHTO R 49 (Low Temperature PG) Solubility & RV Separation AASHTO T 44 ASTM D7173

DSR RTFO PAV Vacuum Degassing Oven BBR DTT ABCD (AASHTO TP 92) Torsional bar testing MSCR Criteria: AASHTO M 332 - Jnr 15 Boundaries for Jnr values are established

based upon traffic level. As traffic level increases, lower Jnr value is required -> basically stiffer binder. MSCR Criteria: AASHTO R 92 - R% 16 % Recovery is plotted vs. Jnr. Boundaries are established based upon measured Jnr values at 3.2 kPa.

A simple above the line/below the line criteria provides the needed validation of polymer modification. % Recovery above the line indicates the binder is modified with an acceptable elastomeric polymer. % Recovery below the line indicates the binder is not modified with an elastomeric polymer.

Source: Asphalt Institute Good agreement has been established between elastomeric polymer modification and rutting resistance. MSCR Implementation 17 Source: Asphalt Institute DSR Testing Alternative: Asphalt Rubber Binder 18

Can it fit within existing PG grading system? DSR Testing Geometry Caltrans, University of California Pavement Research Center, Anton Paar, etc. Concentric cylinder (CC) development testing

evaluation looks promising. CC test geometry may overcome specimen preparation limitations of PP geometry. Draft AASHTO standard in development. Concentric Cylinder Geometry 19 Advantages

GTR modified asphalt can be measured with particle sizes up to 2 mm. No trimming problems and filling problems. No edge effects. Low Temperature BBR Test: Binder New Parameter (Tc) 20 Tc has been identified as an important parameter related to asphalt binder durability.

Tc = S critical temp - m critical temp. As an asphalt binder ages, Tc value becomes more negative. Indicating a loss of relaxation properties. Threshold of -5 C being evaluated as a cracking criteria.

21 Mixture Activities Performance Testing 22 AASHTO T 378 (former TP 79) Dynamic Modulus

Mixture Stiffness Rutting Fatigue Cracking Flow Number Rutting AASHTO TP 107 Cyclic Fatigue AASHTO TP XX Stress Sweep Rutting (SSR)

Small Specimen Testing 23 Proposed to enable field core testing To improve the efficiency of laboratory specimen fabrication Image: North Carolina State University Small Specimen Geometry 24

Need less material to complete testing matrix Image: North Carolina State University Small Specimen Geometry 25 Imag: North Carolina State University Types of Small Specimen Testing 26 Small Scale Dynamic Modulus

Small Scale Cyclic Fatigue AMPT Small Specimen Advantages 27 Field core testing Reduced sampling and material requirements for testing Same data output generated from small scale testing as full scale testing 28

Arizona Project Arizona Project Description - 2015 29 Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC) mixtures Three different Terminal blended Asphalt Rubbers Hybrid Binders: PG70-22 TR+ (8 % GTR + 2 % SBS; solubility limit of 97%) PG70-22 TR+ S92

(8 % GTR + 2 % SBS; solubility limit of 92%) PG70-22 (contains only SBS) Study Plans 30 Topics investigated in this project Solubility Separation DSR testing: gap size effect Long term conditioning

Solubility AASHTO T 44 31 UW-Madison MARC have proposed changes to the standard Use of toluene as the solvent The addition of an analytical filter: To increase the filter area and reduce the potential for the fiberglass filter to become

clogged during testing Analytical Filters used in this study Celite Diatomaceous Earth (DE) Solubility Results 32 Use of toluene as the solvent The addition of an analytical filter Some differences in solubility Solubility Results:

Analysis of Variance 33 Compared to Standard Method, AASHTO T 44. Not a statistically significant difference using toluene compared to trichloroethylene. The differences in solubility when using an analytical filter aid were 0.5 to 2.5 percent: significant considering solubility is normally specified to the nearest 0.1 percent ! Separation Results 34

Separation tests conducted following ASTM D7173: samples are stored in vertical tubes in an oven at 163 C for 48 hours Test specimens taken from the top and bottom of the vertical storage tube are measured using AASHTO T 315 GTR is separating and sinking to the bottom of the separation tube. PG Results: PG 70-22 TR+ (S97) 1 & 2 mm gap vs. Cup and Bob 35 Same PG grade

Cup & Bob (CC 17) slightly higher G*/sin value: perhaps due to trimming or shelf-aging of material Cup & Bob: smallest values of standard deviation PG Results: PG 70-22 TR+ (S92) 1 & 2 mm gap vs. Cup and Bob - Unaged 36 PP 1mm shows different material behavior PP 1mm: possible particle interactions with plates -> higher stiffness & more elastic type behavior Similar results for PP 2mm and Cup & Bob

DSR PG Results: 1 vs. 2 mm gap PG 70-22 TR+ (S 92) Original binder at 76 C 37 For gap sizes of 1 to 2 mm: when there is an interaction of the rubber particles with the testing plates -> gap : variability, the complex modulus, the phase angle. Lower G*/sin and phase angle for 1mm PG Results: PG 70-22 TR+ (S92) 1 & 2 mm gap vs. Cup and Bob - RTFO 38

Same PG grade PP 1mm: possible particle interactions with plates -> lower phase angle (more elastic type behavior) Differences decreased after RTFO conditioning PG Results: PG 70-22 TR+ (S92) 39 2mm vs. Cup & Bob: most similar results Differences decreased after RTFO aging DSR PG Results: 1 vs. 2 mm gap Statistical Analysis Effect of

1mm increase in gap 40 Only PG 70-22 TR+ (S 92) original binder show effects consistent with particle interaction. When used to test binders modified with GTR, this gap may be too small to accommodate the rubber particles. Concentric Cylinder (Cup & Bob) needed as testing geometry for these materials.

Summary of Findings 41 Solubility: Toluene was found to be an acceptable alternative to Trichloroethylene as a solvent for solubility testing. Separation: GTR, due to its higher specific gravity than neat asphalt binder, is separating and sinking to the bottom of the separation tube. Separation of TR+ (S 92) binder during non-agitated long-term storage should be expected. DSR testing: Results indicate that particle interaction

with the plates likely occurs when testing the PG 70-22 TR+ (S 92) using the parallel plate geometry. Takeaway 42 Separation: Needs to be considered for Asphalt Rubber Material. (ASTM D7173) DSR testing: All Asphalt Rubber Binders are not the same ! Some may work with PP and some not. Cup & Bob is a scientific & practical solution.

DSR testing: PP issues: trimming, edge effect, particle interactions, rubber swelling, rubber mesh size and percentage, etc. Cup & Bob: no trimming, exact volume filling, no edge effect Technical Assistance 43 If you have upcoming projects for which you would like MATT technical assistance, contact:

Amir Golalipour, [email protected], 202.366.3982 Dave Mensching, [email protected], 202.493.3232 https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/asphalt/trailer/ Thank You Questions? 44 Trailer is parked outside! Come in for a tour!

Were here to assist! Please stop by anytime for more discussion.

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