Making sense of ISIS David Siddhartha Patel Crown Center for Middle East Studies, Brandeis University March 19, 2015
Origins of ISIS ISIS/ISIL/DAESH/IS ?!? Goals
Intentions and philosophy Why has it been successful? Who is fighting ISIS and where? 2003-2011 Part of the Iraqi insurgency - Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
- - 1999-2004: Jamaat al-Tawhid wal-Jihad Oct 2004: Pledges allegiance to OBL; becomes al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)
Highly sectarian targets Shiite mosques and civilians, Iraqi govt, U.S. Feb 2006: bombing of al-Askariyya shrine in Samaraa June 2006: Zarqawi killed Oct 2006: Declares Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) Largely defeated by the U.S. from June 2007 to 2010; reduced to sporadic bombing
May 2010: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi takes over 2011-present Expansion into Syria fuels revival in Iraq - March 2011: Syrian civil war begins - Aug 2011: ISI sends cadres to Syria, who work with al-Nusra Front as al-Qaedas franchise. ISI becomes ISIS; renames itself in April 2013.
- March 2013: ISIS and allies take Raqqa - By Feb 2014: ISI/ISIS falls out with al-Nusra and al-Qaeda. All ties severed. Fights al-Nusra and FSA. Takes Fallujah in Jan 2014. Prison breaks in Iraq swell its ranks. - Early June 2014: ISIS takes Mosul, Tikrit, oil refinery in Baiji, Mosul dam - Late June 2014: ISIS proclaims itself a worldwide caliphate, The Islamic State. - Aug 2014: Attacks on Yazidis in Sinjar
- Aug 2014: Obama authorizes airstrikes against ISIS ISIS/ISIL/IS/Daish?!? ad-Dawlah al-Islmiyah fl-Irq wash-Shm
ad-Dawlah al-Islmiyah fl-Irq wash-Shm ISIS The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria ISIL The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant ISIS/ISIL/IS/Daish?!?
ad-Dawlah al-Islmiyah fl-Irq wash-Shm The Islamic State The so-called Islamic State Islamic State (BBCs preferred term)
Area controlled by ISIS (1 November 2014) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant Area controlled by ISIS (1 November 2014) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant
Area controlled by ISIS (3 February 2015) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant The Golden Age of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, 632-661 a.k.a. the Rashidun
Abu Bakr 632-634 Umar 634-644 Uthman 644-656 Ali 656-661
From Marshall G.S. Hodgson. 1977. The Venture of Islam, Volume I. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. 14
The spread of Islam, 622-750 The Rightly-Guided Caliphs followed by: Umayyad Caliphate 661-750, based in Damascus
Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258, based in Baghdad Others Ottoman Caliphate c. 1517-1924, based in
Istanbul 15 The early Islamic empire 16
is now divided into nation-states 17 Source: Thorp, Gene,
and Swati Sharma. 2015. Fighters to Syria. The Washington Post January 27.
The anti-ISIS coalition The fight in Iraq General Qasem Soleimani
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