THE TWENTIETH CENTURY THE PROGRESSIVE ERA AND WORLD

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY THE PROGRESSIVE ERA AND  WORLD

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY THE PROGRESSIVE ERA AND

WORLD WAR I (1900-1920) H/O Two handouts Populists' successes in

both local and national elections encouraged others to seek change through political action Poor farmers daily

struggle to make a living made political activity difficult, so Progressives came to dominate

Progressives achieved greater success in part because theirs was an urban, middle-class movement Started with more

economic and political clout than the Populists Progressives could devote more time to

the causes Progressives were Northern and middle class, so the Progressive movement did not intensify regional and

class differences Roots of Progressivism lay in the growing number of associations and organizations

e.g. National Woman Suffrage Association, the American Bar Association, and the National Municipal League are some of the

many groups Members were educated and middle class further boost from a group of journalists

dubbed "muckrakers" Revealed widespread corruption in urban management Progressives achieved great successes

Du Bois headed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) After a lifelong struggle, Du

Bois abandoned the United States and moved to Africa Robert LaFollette led the way for many Progressives

Most prominent Progressive: Theodore Roosevelt Presidents Taft and Wilson continued to promote

Progressive ideals Progressivism lasted until the end of World War I War had torn apart

the Progressive coalition; pacifist Progressives opposed the war while others supported it Red Scare, heightened by

the Russian Revolution further split the Progressive coalition by dividing the leftists from the moderates achieved many of its goals

Progressive movement was brought to an end, at least in part, by its own success. FOREIGN POLICY

AND U.S. ENTRY INTO WORLD WAR I Roosevelt was an even more devout imperialist than McKinley had been

strong-armed Cuba into accepting the Platt Amendment Roosevelt's actions

were equally interventionist throughout Central America Country set its sights on building a canal through

the Central American isthmus American foreign policy continued to adhere to the Monroe Doctrine

Wilson won the election of 1912, a three way race in which the third party candidate, Theodore Roosevelt, outpolled Taft, the Republican incumbent

When war broke out in Europe in August 1914, Wilson immediately declared the U.S. policy of neutrality H/O

WW I Owing to America's close relationship with England and relatively distant relationship with Germany and AustriaHungary a number of Wilson's advisors openly favored the

Allies England's superior navy allowed it to impose a blockade on shipments headed for Germany (namely, American

shipments). The British government confiscated American ships. They then paid for the cargo, reducing the pressure that American merchants would

otherwise have put on the U.S. government to take action Germany attempted to counter the blockade with

submarines When the Germans attacked civilian ships, it was usually because those ships were carrying military

supplies German submarines sank the passenger ship Lusitania in 1915

In 1916, while Wilson was campaigning for reelection on the slogan "He kept us out of war," Germany sank another passenger liner

Popular support for entry into war was beginning to grow. H/O Home Front

1917 the British intercepted a telegram from German Foreign Minister Zimmerman

Telegram convinced many Americans that Germany was trying to take over the world WORLD WAR I

AND ITS AFTERMATH Government's power expanded greatly

Government took control of the telephone, telegraph, and rail industries Curtailed

individual civil liberties Still sizable opposition to U.S. involvement

Espionage Act in 1917 and the Sedition Act in 1918 Americans began to fear a

Communist takeover Radical labor unions, such as the International Workers of the World, were

branded enemies of the state Unions lost power Eugene Debs, the

Socialist leader, was also imprisoned for criticizing the war. Federal Bureau of Investigation, was

created to prevent radicals from taking over Palmer Raids in early 1920: the government abandoned all pretext of respecting civil

liberties as its agents raided union halls, pool halls, social clubs, and residences to arrest 4,000 suspected radicals Committee on Public

Information created the image of the Germans as cold-blooded, babykilling, power-hungry Huns Americans rejected all things German; for

example, they changed the name of sauerkraut to "liberty cabbage." New opportunities for women

Southern blacks, realizing that wartime manufacturing was creating jobs in the North, migrated to the big cities H/O

Winning the peace handout Two years after America's entry, the Germans were ready to negotiate a peace treaty

Wilson wanted the war treaty to be guided by his Fourteen Points The European

Allies wanted a peace settlement that punished Germany The Senate rejected the treaty and

American participation in the League of Nations America was receding into a period of

isolationism The Roaring Twenties coincided with

the "return to normalcy" promised in the 1920 election by Warren G. Normalcy in

business meant a laissez-faire attitude pro-business attitude

(1)passing the FordneyMcCumber Tariff, (2) in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to the postwar Allied governments who returned the favor by buying U.S.produced goods and foodstuffs, and (3) by

cracking down on strikes Once the war was over, farmers were left with surplus goods lobbied for the federal

government to buy the excess Coolidge vetoed the bill twice 1929, Congress established the Farm Board to buy

surpluses and maintain prices, but farmers continued to grow as much as they wanted Harding administration is remembered for its

scandals Teapot Dome reserve land with rich oil Scandal deposits had been set aside under the jurisdiction of the

Navy Department involved a member of Harding's cabinet, two oil speculators, and large bribes to

open the reserve for drilling. Twenties was also known as the Jazz Age The Great Migration

had transformed parts of some Northern cities into all-black neighborhoods flowering of AfricanAmerican culture called the Harlem Renaissance

Harlem attracted AfricanAmerican writers, artists, and musicians from around the nation to what was known as the New Negro Movement. Henry Ford perfected the assembly

line and mass production, which lowered the cost of automobiles allowed those who worked in the cities to move farther away from city centers, thus giving birth to the

suburbs radio followed automobiles in changing the nation's culture As more houses gained access to electric power,

household appliance sales boomed advertising industry grew up during the decade

Temperance Movement By 1917, two thirds of the states had passed laws prohibiting the consumption of alcohol

With the entrance of the United States into World War I prohibitionist forces cloaked themselves in the mantle of

patriotism (1) prohibition would shift thousands of tons of grain from liquor manufacture to war uses; (2) alcoholism led to drunkenness, and a

drunken man was of no use to the war effort; and (3) most breweries and whiskey distilleries were owned by Germans. In 1917,

Congress passed the Eighteenth Amendment, and the states ratified it by 1919. The large-scale manufacture and

smuggling of alcohol became the business of organized crime Prohibition was repealed in 1933.

red scare at the end of war also resulted in legislation restricting immigration 1921, the Immigration Restriction Act was passed and in 1924,

the National Origins Act aimed at restricting immigrants from southern and

central Europe and Asia resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan Anti-Catholic sentiment was a factor

in the 1928 election Al Smith lost. Smith had other liabilities. He was a product of the New York City machine

Hoover ran on his record of public service and on Republican prosperity THE GREAT DEPRESSION

Check your notes for handout re. The Great Depression and new deal

Herbert Hoover took office in 1928 Lots of speculation in the stock market. But that was just one of a

number of problems. Among the weaknesses in the U.S. economy (1) the amount of stock being bought on

margin; (2) depressed agricultural prices (3) the unequal distribution of wealth

5 percent of the population provided the nation's invest ment capital and the majority of its purchasing power

(4) the tax policies that contributed to the unequal distribution of wealth; (5) the expansion of businesses

(6) easy-to-get installment credit (7) the size and influence on segments of the economy of holding

companies (8) the weakness of the banking system because of many small and mismanaged banks

(9) high tariffs that closed off foreign markets (10) the Allies' insistence on collecting war debts

that depressed foreign trade, especially for U.S. foodstuffs Overproduction and underconsumption

joined to create financial problems for businesses that now found themselves with surplus inventory and their own loans to meet.

By the fall of 1929, more than $7 billion had been borrowed to buy stocks on margin many stocks were hugely overvalued

Professional speculators began to cash out of the market in September

After the Crash many stocks were worthless People lost their life savings Banks foreclosed on loans and mortgages

When their borrowers could not repay their loans, the banks went under Businesses went

bankrupt as inventories piled up Hoover believed the Depression would be shortlived

He authorized the funding of the Home Loan Bank Act and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Hoover believed

(1)helping the unemployed was the responsibility of churches, private agencies, and local and state governments (2) that giving a handout to the unemployed would destroy

their self-respect and individual initiative (3) that a federal relief program would bankrupt the nation (4) that a federal relief program

would dangerously enlarge the power of the federal government and create a bloated bureaucracy Farmers organized farm committees to prevent

creditors from foreclosing on their 1932, some twenty thousand neighbors unemployed veterans descended on Washington, D.C., demanding

payment of bonus not due until 1945 Hoover dispatched capital Shots werethefired

police to remove the veterans General Douglas MacArthur, who had been told to stand ready in case of trouble, ordered troops and tanks into the fray

KEY PEOPLE and terms Romare Bearden, Sargent Johnson,

Augusta Savage expatriates, "lost generation," alienation, Ernest Heminway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude

Stein Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington, Jelly Roll Morton, Bessie Smith, William Grant

Still Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, James

Weldon Johnson Andrew Mellon, cut excess profits tax, tax the poor rather than the rich to stimulate

investment KEY TERMS/IDEAS anti-Semitism, consumer culture: the automobile,

radio, movies, sports Sacco-Vanzetti case, Scopes trial, evolution, William Jennings Bryan,

religious fundamentalism H/O Handout for the Great Depression and New

Deal THE NEW DEAL "The only thing we have to fear is fear itselfnameless, unreasoning, unjustified fear."

Roosevelt summoned an emergency session of Congress The period that followed is often called the First Hundred Days

It was during this time that the government implemented most of the major programs associated with the First New Deal Consult your text and notes for program details

The First New Deal was an immediate success In the midterm elections of 1934, the Democrats increased their majorities in both houses.

Emergency Banking Relief Bill fireside chats American banks, once on the verge of ruin,

were again healthy Banking Act of 1933, which created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

Agricultural Adjustment Act Paid farmers to cut production Farm Credit Act Provided loans

New Deal programs established government control over industry National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

consolidated businesses and coordinated their activities Public Works Administration (PWA) created jobs building roads, sewers, public housing

units, etc. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) provided grants to the states to manage their own PWA-like projects

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) provided energy to the Tennessee Valley region Conservatives opposed the

higher tax rates that the New Deal disliked the increase in government power over business

deficit spending was also anathema to conservatives Leftists complained that the AAA policy of paying farmers not to grow was immoral

felt that government policy toward businesses was too favorable the left blamed corporate greed

for the Depression Socialists and the Communist Party of America were gaining popularity Called for the

nationalization of business 1935, the Supreme Court started to dismantle some of the programs

declared the NIRA illegal invalidated the AAA Roosevelt responded with a package of legislation called the

Second New Deal THE SECOND NEW DEAL H/O You should have a

handout created the Works Progress Administration (WPA) broadened the powers of the NLRB

created the Social Security Administration ROOSEVELT'S TROUBLED SECOND TERM

Consult your alphabet soup worksheet FOREIGN POLICY LEADING UP TO

WORLD WAR II After World War I, American foreign policy objectives aimed primarily at promoting and maintaining peace

Washington Conference (1921-22) gathered eight of the world's great powers; the resulting treaty set limits on stockpiling armaments

1928, 62 nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact In Latin America, the U.S. tried

in the 1920s to back away from its previous However interventionist policy and replace it with the Good Neighbor policy the United States

continued to actively promote its interests in Latin America, often to the detriment of those who lived there U.S. mainly achieved its

foreign policy objectives through economic coercion and support of proAmerican leaders (some of whom were corrupt and brutal). Consult

your H/O handout re. the drift toward WWII

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