A&P Lab Week #04 Skeletal System Part 04.A

A&P Lab Week #04 Skeletal System Part 04.A

A&P Lab Week #04 Skeletal System Part 04.A (#01) Axial Skeletal Structures Skeletal System Structures SPO #1a (Axial Skeletal Structures) Using specimens, models, and diagrams, describe the general areas of the skeletal system (axial vs. appendicular) and the following associated specific structures: Axial Skeletal Structures Skeletal system components:

Adult Bones (206 total) Divisions: 1. Axial skeleton (126 bones) Bones of skull, thorax, and vertebral column Form longitudinal axis of body 2. Appendicular skeleton (80 bones) Bones of the limbs and girdles that attach them to the axial skeleton Cartilages Ligaments and other connective tissues

The adult skeletal system, which can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton Axial Skeleton (80 Bones) The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, thorax, and vertebral column. These

elements form the longitudinal axis of the body. Appendicular Skeleton (126 Bones) The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs and the pectoral and pelvic girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton. Introduction to the Axial Skeleton Axial skeleton

Forms longitudinal axis of body Includes: Skull and associated bones Thoracic cage Vertebral column Various supplemental cartilages Typically 80 bones ~40% of bones in body SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 Skull Face

Skull and associated 29 bones Associated bones AXIAL 80 SKELETON Thoracic cage 25 Cranium 8 14 APPENDICULAR

126 SKELETON (see Section 2) Auditory ossicles 6 Hyoid 1 Sternum 1 Ribs Costal cartilages (cartilages of ribs)

24 Intervertebral discs (cartilage) Vertebrae24 Vertebral column 26 Sacrum 1 Coccyx 1 Bones of the Axial Skeleton

The 22 bones that form the skull, plus the seven bones associated with the skull SKULL FACE 14 Maxillary bones 2 8 Occipital bone 1 Palatine bones 2

Parietel bones 2 Nasal bones 2 Inferior nasal conchae 2 Frontal bone 1 Temporal bones 2 Zygomatic bones 2 Lacrimal bones

2 Vomer 1 Mandible 1 CRANIUM Sphenoid 1 Ethmoid

1 ASSOCIATED BONES 7 Hyoid bone 1 Auditory ossicles enclosed in 6 temporal bones Lateral View of Facial & Cranial Bones of the Skull Cranial Bones Frontal

bone Sphenoid Ethmoid Parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone Bones of the Skull Skull 22 bones Cranium (8) Cranial bones that form the cranial cavity (fluid-filled chamber

that cushions and supports brain) Blood vessels, nerves, and membranes attach to brain Outer surface for muscles that move eyes, jaws, and head Facial bones (22) Protect and support entrances for digestive and respiratory tracts Provide attachment for muscles controlling facial expression and assist in manipulating food Bones of the Skull Associated bones: Six auditory ossicles in temporal bones Three ear bones on each side Hyoid bone connected to inferior surfaces of temporal bones

Sutures: Articulations of the Skull Joints (articulations) Where two bones interconnect Called sutures in the skull Immovable Bones tied together with dense fibrous connective tissue Four major sutures 1. Coronal (frontal to parietal bones) Calvaria (skullcap formed by frontal, parietal, and occipital bones) 2. Squamous (temporal to parietal bones) 3. Sagittal (between parietal bones) 4. Lambdoid (occipital to parietal bones) Major

Sutures of the Skull Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Squamous suture Temporal bone Occipital bone Lambdoid suture

Lateral view of skull Sagittal suture Parietal bone Parietal bone Sutural bone Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Posterior view of skull Bones of the skull in anterior view

Facial Bones Nasal bone Cranial Bones Parietal bone Frontal bone Lacrimal bone Palatine bone Sphenoid Zygomatic bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha

Vomer Mandible Ethmoid Cranial bones: Frontal Bone Frontal bone: Forms anterior portion of cranium and roof of orbits Forms anterior, superior portion of cranium Frontal squama (forehead) Provides surface for attachment for facial muscles Supraorbital foramen or notch: May appear as either a foramen or notch

Frontal sinuses: Secrete mucus that helps flush nasal cavities Variable in size and appearance The interior of the skull, as revealed by sagittal section that passes just to the left of the midline Frontal Coronal bone suture Sphenoidal Sinus Sella turcica Petrous part (of temporal bone)

Frontal sinuses Parietal bone Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Temporal bone Ethmoid Occipital bone

Hypoglossal canal Maxilla Mandible Styloid process Internal acoustic meatus Cranial Bones: Parietal Bones Form part of superior and lateral surfaces of cranium

Coronal suture Sphenoid bone Squamous suture Parietal bone Frontal bone Temporal bone

Lambdoid suture Occipital bone The skull in lateral view The bones of the skull in posterior view Cranial Bones Parietal bones Sagittal suture Occipital bone Lambdoid

suture Temporal bone Squamous suture Cranial Bones: Occipital Bone Contributes to posterior, lateral, and inferior surfaces of cranium Occipital condyles: Articulation site for first cervical vertebrae Foramen magnum Connects cranial cavity and vertebral canal For passage of brain stem & spinal cord Hypoglossal canal:

Lateral base of occipital condyle to inner surface of occipital bone near foramen magnum Hypoglossal nerves pass through External occipital crest Helps stabilize vertebrae of neck Inferior and superior nuchal lines Attachment sites for muscles and ligaments that stabilize head with neck vertebrae Internal occipital crest Ridge that anchors blood vessels and membranes that stabilize brain An inferior view of the skull Occipital condyles Lambdoid suture

Occipital bone Foramen magnum Cranial Bones: Temporal Bones Form part of lateral wall of cranium Articulate with facial bones and form articulations with mandible Attachment site for muscles closing jaw and moving head External acoustic meatus: Ends at tympanic membrane Mastoid process: Attachment for muscles that rotate or extend head

Styloid process: Attached to ligaments supporting hyoid bone and tendons of several muscles Zygomatic process: Articulates with zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch [cheekbone] Carotid canal: Passage of carotid artery Jugular foramen: Between occipital and temporal bone Passage of jugular vein Squamous part (of temporal bone) Squamous

suture Sphenoid Parietal bone External acoustic meatus Temporal bone Lambdoid suture Zygomatic bone

Occipital bone Mastoid process Styloid process Mandible Zygomatic arch The skull in lateral view An inferior view of the skull Zygomatic bone Frontal bone

Palatine bone Maxilla Vomer Foramina Foramen lacerum Sphenoid Zygomatic process Styloid process Carotid canal

External auditory meatus Jugular foramen Temporal bone Mastoid process Occipital bone Lambdoid suture Cranial Bones: Temporal Bones Petrous portion of temporal bone: Encloses structures of inner ear and auditory ossicles in middle

ear Internal acoustic meatus Medial surface of petrous portion of temporal bone Carries blood vessels and nerves to inner ear Conveys facial nerve to stylomastoid foramen Squamous part of temporal bone Convex, irregular surface bordering squamous suture Superior and inferior temporal lines Mark attachment of temporalis muscle Mandibular fossa Inferior surface of temporal bone Articulation site with mandible Stylomastoid foramen: Posterior to base of styloid process Passage of facial nerve to facial muscles An inferior view of the skull

Foramen lacerum Sphenoid Foramen ovale Two views of the Sphenoid Greater wing Optic canal Lesser wing Superior surface of the sphenoid

Hypophyseal fossa Sella turcica Superior fissure ForamenForamen Foramen spinosum orbital ovale rotundum Sphenoidal spine Cranial Bones: Sphenoid

Forms part of floor of cranium Unites facial and cranial bones Acts as cross-bridge to strengthen skull Sella turcica Saddle-shaped enclosure Hypophyseal fossa Depression within sella turcica Occupied by pituitary gland Sphenoidal sinus Optic foramen (canal): Passage of optic nerves from eyes to brain The interior of the skull, as revealed by sagittal section that passes just to the left of the midline Sphenoid

Frontal bone Coronal suture Sphenoidal sinus (right) Sella turcica Petrous part (of temporal bone) Frontal sinuses Parietal

bone Nasal bone Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Temporal bone Ethmoid Vomer Occipital bone

Palatine bone Hypoglossal canal Maxilla Mandible Styloid process Internal acoustic meatus Cranial Bones: Sphenoid

Foramina (penetrate greater wing and carry blood vessels and nerves) Foramen ovale (to face) Passage of nerves for jaws Foramen lacerum (lacerare, to tear) Jagged slit between sphenoid and petrous portion of temporal bone Contains cartilage and small arteries for inner cranium Superior orbital fissure (to cranial cavity membranes) Foramen rotundum (to jaws) Foramen spinosum (to orbit) he interior of the skull, as revealed by horizontal secti Nasal bones

Frontal bone Crista galli Cribriform plate Ethmoid Sella turcica Foramen rotundum Foramen lacerum Foramen ovale Sphenoid Temporal bone Foramen spinosum Carotid canal

Internal acoustic meatus Mastoid foramen Jugular foramen Parietal bone Hypoglossal canal Occipital bone Internal occipital crest Cranial Bones - Ethmoid Bone Forms anteromedial floor of cranium and roof of nasal cavity, and part of nasal septum and medial orbit wall

Cribriform plate [cribrum, sieve]: Forms anteromedial floor of cranium and roof of nasal cavity Olfactory foramina permit passage of olfactory nerves for sense of smell Crista galli (crista, crest + gallus, chicken; cocks comb) Bony ridge that projects superior to cribiform plate Attachment of falx cerebri, which stabilizes brain he interior of the skull, as revealed by horizontal secti Nasal bones Frontal bone

Crista galli Cribriform plate Ethmoid Sella turcica Foramen rotundum Sphenoid Foramen lacerum Temporal bone

Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Carotid canal Internal acoustic meatus Mastoid foramen Jugular foramen Parietal bone Hypoglossal canal Occipital bone Internal occipital crest Cranial Bones - Ethmoid Bone

Lateral masses: Ethmoidal sinus [labyrinth] Interconnected air cells that connect to nasal cavity Superior nasal conchae (projections) Middle nasal conchae (projections) Perpendicular plate Forms part of nasal septum Cranial Bones Ethmoid Bone Cribriform plate Crista galli Lateral masses

Superior and middle nasal conchae Perpendicular plate Superior surface Posterior surface Facial Bones Nasal Bones: Support superior portion of bridge of nose Attached to cartilages of distal portion of nose Facial Bones Lacrimal Bones: Form part of medial wall of orbit (eye socket)

Facial Bones - Palatine Bones Forms posterior portion of hard palate and contributes to floor of each orbit Orbital process Forms part of floor of orbit Normally contains small sinus that opens into sphenoidal sinus Horizontal plate Forms posterior part of hard palate Perpendicular plate Extends from horizontal plate to orbital process Facial Bones Palatine Bones Orbital process

Perpendicular plate of the palatine bone Nasal crest Horizontal plate Facial Bones Zygomatic Bones: Contribute to rim and lateral wall of orbit Form part of cheekbone Facial Bones Inferior Nasal Conchae: Inferior nasal conchae Create turbulence in air entering nasal cavity Increase surface area to promote warming and humidification of incoming air

Facial Bones Vomer: Forms inferior portion of bony nasal septum Facial Bones Maxillae Bones Support upper teeth Form inferior rim, lateral margins of external nares, upper jaw, and most of hard palate Facial Bones Mandible Bone Forms lower jaw Alveolar processes Support upper and lower teeth in mandible and maxillae Mental protuberance (mentalis, chin)

Attachment site for several facial muscles Mandibular angle Posterior, inferior corner of lower jaw Orbital & Nasal Complexes Orbit: Contains eye Formed by seven bones of the orbital complex 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Frontal (roof) Zygomatic (lateral wall) Maxilla (most of floor) Lacrimal (medial wall) Ethmoid (medial wall) Sphenoid (posterior wall) Palatine (posterior wall) Orbital & Nasal Complexes Bony features of orbit: Lacrimal fossa Shallow depression in frontal bone Lacrimal (tear) gland location Supra-orbital margin Thickening of frontal bone to help protect eye

Supra-orbital notch Passage of blood vessels to eyebrow, eyelids, and frontal sinuses Also occurs as supra-orbital foramen when fully enclosed Orbital & Nasal Complexes Bony features of orbit: (continued) Lacrimal sulcus Groove along anterior, lateral surface of lacrimal bone Location of lacrimal sac Leads to nasolacrimal canal Nasolacrimal canal Formed by maxilla and lacrimal bone Protects lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct (carries tears to nasal cavity)

Orbital & Nasal Complexes Bony features of orbit: (continued) Infra-orbital foramen Passage of major sensory nerve that reaches brain through foramen rotundum Zygomaticofacial foramen Anterior surface of zygomatic bone Carries sensory nerve innervating cheek The bones of the orbital complex Lacrimal fossa Supra-orbital margin Supra-orbital notch

Frontal bone Palatine bone Ethmoid Lacrimal sulcus Sphenoid Temporal bone Nasolacrimal canal Zygomatic bone Zygomaticofacial foramen Intra-orbital foramen

Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Maxilla Orbital & Nasal Complexes Nasal complex: Bones that enclose the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses (secretions flush nasal cavities) Paranasal sinuses Sphenoidal sinuses

Ethmoid air cells Frontal sinuses Palatine Maxillary sinuses Lighten skull and provide area of mucous epithelium The bones of the nasal complex Cranial cavity Frontal bone Ethmoidal air cells Orbit Zygomatic bone Maxillary sinus

Maxilla Frontal section Mandible Nasal cavities Orbital & Nasal Complexes Nasal cavity bones: Superior wall: Frontal Sphenoid Ethmoid

Lateral walls: Maxillae Lacrimal bones Ethmoid Inferior nasal conchae Bones that form and surround the nasal cavity (as revealed by a sagittal section with nasal Frontal sinuses septum removed) Frontal bone Sphenoidal sinus Sphenoid

Ethmoid Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Superior nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Middle nasal concha Perpendicular plate of palatine bone Pterygoid plates Maxilla

Hard palate Facial Bones Mandible Bone Condylar process Articulates with temporal bone at temporomandibular joint Coronoid process Insertion point for temporalis muscle Mandibular notch Depression that separates condylar and coronoid processes Alveolar process Supports lower teeth

Facial Bones Mandible Bone Body Horizontal portion of bone Ramus Ascending part that begins at mandibular angle Mylohyoid line Insertion of mylohyoid muscle (supports mouth floor) Mandibular foramen Passageway for blood vessels and nerves that service the lower teeth Mandible - lateral view

Coronoid process Teeth (molars) Condylar process Alveolar process Mental foramen Mandibular notch Body of the mandible Ramus of the mandible Mandible - Medial Surface

Coronoid Condylar process process Mylohyoid line Head Mandibular foramen Alveolar part Position of the submandibular salivary gland Associated Skull Bones - Hyoid Supports larynx Attachment site for muscles of larynx, pharynx,

and tongue Greater horns: Help support larynx Attachment point for tongue muscles Lesser horns: Attachment point for hyoid and laryngeal ligaments Hyoid bone Greater horn Lesser horn Body of the hyoid Associated Skull Bones Auditory Ossicles Located in middle ear within petrous portion of temporal bone

Conduct sound wave vibrations from tympanic membrane to hearing receptors of inner ear SKULL FACE 14 CRANIUM 8 Maxillary bones 2 Occipital bone 1

Palatine bones 2 Parietal bones 2 Nasal bones 2 Inferior nasal conchae 2 Zygomatic bones 2 Lacrimal bones

2 Vomer 1 Mandible 1 Frontal bone 1 Temporal bones 2 Sphenoid

1 Ethmoid 1 ASSOCIATED BONES 7 Hyoid bone 1 Auditory ossicles enclosed in 6 temporal bones The Auditory Ossicles

Fontanelles Fontanelles: Large fibrous areas between cranial bones of infants and small children Ease passage of head through birth canal Allow for cranial growth to keep pace with brain growth and later fetal stages Over time, fontanelles are replaced with sutures Occipital, sphenoidal, and mastoid fontanelles disappear a month or two after birth All fontanelles replaced before age 5 when brain stops growing Fontanelles Fontanelles: Anterior

Largest fontanelle At intersection of frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures Sphenoidal Junction of squamous and coronal sutures Mastoid Junction of squamous and lambdoid sutures Occipital Junction of lambdoid and sagittal sutures The anterior fontanelle and associated sutures in the skull of an infant Sagittal suture Left

parietal bone Right parietal bone Anterior fontanelle Coronal suture Frontal suture Frontal bone Frontal suture

Occipital fontanelle and associated sutures Posterior View of the skull of an infant Left parietal bone Right parietal bone Sagittal suture Occipital fontanelle Lambdoid suture Occipital bone

A lateral view of the skull of an infant Sphenoidal fontanelle Coronal suture Sphenoid Parietal bone Frontal bone Squamous suture Mastoid fontanelle Nasal bone

Temporal bone Maxilla Mandible Lambdoid suture Occipital bone A superior view of the skull of an infant Frontal suture Frontal bone

Anterior fontanelle Frontal bone Coronal suture Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Sagittal suture Occipital fontanelle Parietal

bone Occipital bone Axial Skeleton - Vertebral Column Vertebral Column Vertebral regions: (defined by anatomical characteristics of individual vertebrae) Cervical (7 vertebrae) Thoracic (12 vertebrae) Lumbar (5 vertebrae) Sacral Coccygeal The parts of a typical vertebra Parts of a Vertebra

Articular processe s Vertebral arch Vertebral body Superior view The parts of the vertebral arch The Vertebral Arch Vertebral foramen Spinous process

Laminae Transvers e process Pedicles Inferior view Vertebral Column Parts of typical vertebra: Articular processes Extend superiorly and inferiorly to articulate with adjacent vertebrae Have smooth, concave surface (articular facet) Superior articular process Inferior articular process Vertebral body

Transfers weight along vertebral column axis Vertebral Column Parts of typical vertebra: (continued) Vertebral arch: Spinous process (projects posteriorly) Laminae (form roof of vertebral foramen) Transverse processes (project laterally) Pedicles (form sides of vertebral arch) Vertebral foramen Formed by vertebral body and arch Vertebral Column

Characteristics of articulated vertebrae: Intervertebral discs Pads of fibrous cartilage found between bodies of adjacent vertebrae Intervertebral foramina Spaces between successive pedicles Passage of nerves and blood vessels Vertebral canal Encloses spinal cord Lateral view of three vertebrae Pedicle Intervertebral disc Intervertebral foramina

Vertebral body Vertebral canal Posterior view of two vertebrae Articular facet Superior articular process Inferior articular process Vertebral Column Referencing individual vertebrae: One capital letter designator according to region

Examples: C, T, L, S, and Co Subscript number designates relative position within region Example: C3 = 3rd cervical vertebra Cervical Vertebrae Cervical vertebrae: Characteristics: Smallest of vertebral column Extend from occipital bone to thorax Large vertebral foramen Spinal cord here has many axons connecting to brain Vertebral body is small and light Only supports weight of head

Bifid (split) spinous process Transverse foramen Protects vertebral arteries and veins serving brain Costal process (extends anterolaterally from body) A typical cervical vertebra Bifid spinous process Transvers e foramen Vertebral foramen Vertebral body Transverse process

Costal process Cervical Vertebrae First two cervical vertebrae: Specialized to stabilize cranium while permitting head movement 1. Atlas (C1): (named after Greek god who holds world) No spinous process No vertebral body Large round vertebral foramen 2. Axis (C2): Prominent dens or odontoid (odontos, tooth) process of

body Cervical Vertebrae First two cervical vertebrae: (continued) Articulation between occipital condyles and atlas Forms joint permitting nodding yes movement Articulation between atlas and axis Transverse ligament binds dens to anterior arch of atlas Forms joint permitting rotation (shaking your head no) The first two cervical vertebrae: the atlas and the axis Odontoid process (Dens)

Joint that permits nodding (as in indicating yes) Anterior arch of atlas arch Axis Posterior of atlas Atlas Ligament that enables rotation (as in shaking the head to indicate

no) Cervical Vertebrae Last cervical vertebra (C7): Has very robust spinous process with tubercle that can be felt through the skin Known as vertebra prominens Ligamentum nuchae (nucha, nape) Stout elastic ligament extending from vertebra prominens to external occipital crest on skull Acts like bowstring to maintain cervical curvature without muscular effort A lateral view of the seven cervical vertebrae Vertebra prominens

Thoracic Vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae: Twelve thoracic vertebrae Body of each (moving inferior) is more robust than the one superior due to bearing of increasing weight Each has costal facets on the dorsolateral surfaces of vertebral body that articulate with ribs First 10 vertebrae have transverse costal facets as well Ribs 11 and 12 are known as floating ribs accordingly Thoracic Vertebra - Superior view Transverse process Spinous process

Vertebral foramen Superior articular facet Superior costal facet Vertebral body Thoracic Vertebra - Lateral view Superior costal facet

Transverse costal facet Vertebral body Inferior costal facet Transverse process Spinous process Thoracic Vertebrae Characteristics: Distinctive heart-shaped body Smaller vertebral foramen Long, slender, inferiorly pointing spinous process

Lumbar Vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae: Five lumbar vertebrae Largest and transmit most weight Characteristics: Do not have costal facets Have slender transverse processes Triangular vertebral foramen Stumpy spinous process Superior articular processes face medially Inferior articular processes face laterally Sacrum Sacrum: Five fused vertebrae Completely fused by ~2530 years old Anterior surface concave/posterior surface convex

Characteristics: Sacral promontory (important landmark in females) Sacral foramina (intervertebral foramina of fused vertebrae) Ala (bony wing extending laterally) Base (broad superior surface) Apex (narrow inferior portion) Sacrum Sacrum: Characteristics: (continued) Sacral canal (passageway extending length of sacrum containing nerves and membranes of

spinal cord) Auricular surface (thickened, flattened lateral surfaces; sacral part of sacro-iliac joint) Sacral tuberosity (roughened area dorsal to auricular surface; attachment site for ligaments of sacro-iliac joint) Lateral sacral crest (ridge from transverse processes of fused sacral vertebrae) Sacrum & Coccyx Sacrum: Characteristics: (continued) Superior articular process (forms articulation with last lumbar vertebra) Median sacral crest (ridge formed by spinous

processes of fused sacral vertebrae) Sacral hiatus (inferior opening of sacral canal) Coccyx: Three to five fused vertebrae Begin fusing about age 2 Thoracic Cage Thoracic cage: Provides bony support to thoracic cavity walls Protects heart, lungs, thymus, and other thoracic cavity organs Attachment for muscles involved in 1. Respiration 2. Maintenance of vertebral column position 3. Movements of pectoral girdle and upper limbs

Thoracic Cage - Ribs Reinforce posterior and lateral thoracic walls Very mobile and flexible bones Types: True/Vertebrocostal ribs (ribs 17) Connect to sternum via individual costal cartilages False/Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 810) Connect to sternum via shared costal cartilages Floating/Vertebral ribs (ribs 11 and 12) No connection to sternum Thoracic Cage - Sternum Forms anterior midline of thoracic wall Three regions:

1. Manubrium (superior portion that articulates with clavicles and first pair of ribs) 2. Body (attaches inferiorly to manubrium and to ribs 27) 3. Xiphoid process (smallest, most inferior region) Anterior view of Thoracic Cage Jugular notch T1 1 2 3 Sternum Manubrium

4 5 Ribs Vertebrosternal ribs (ribs 17) 6 11 7 Vertebrosternal ribs (ribs 810) 12 Body

T11 T12 8 9 Floating ribs (ribs 11 and 12) Xiphoid process 10 Costal cartilages Thoracic Cage Thoracic cage: Rib landmarks:

Head or capitulum (attachment to vertebra) Articular facts (specific attachment points) Angle (bend connecting head to shaft) Shaft (tubular body) Typical ribs act as bucket handles: Pushing down moves ribs inward Pulling up moves ribs outward Sternum moves accordingly Movements affect width and depth of thoracic cage Posterior view of a representative rib (ribs 29) Articular facets on head

Capitulum Tubercle Angle of the rib Shaft Superficial surface Costal groove The action of a typical rib, which can be likened to the movement of a buckets handle

Sternum Ribs Thoracic Cage Thoracic cage: (continued) Costal-vertebral articulations Heads of ribs 29 articulate on two adjacent vertebrae at costal facets Heads of ribs 1, 10, 11, and 12 articulate with individual vertebrae Tubercular facets attach to transverse costal facts

Superior view of a representative rib Transverse process Tubercular facet Superior articular facet Transverse costal facet Inferior articular facet

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