CSE 301 HISTORY OF COMPUTING & ETHICS MATTHEW

CSE 301  HISTORY OF COMPUTING & ETHICS MATTHEW

CSE 301 HISTORY OF COMPUTING & ETHICS MATTHEW ABBRUSCATO NICOLE ANG DAVID ALCANTAR FADEL AL-MUBARAK RIZWAN AHMAD JAMES ADAMEC COMPUTERS BEFORE 1940 FIRST USES OF HARDWARE Roman Abacus The first device that was used to compute arithmetic was the abacus.

This was an analog device. Used as early as 2400 BC Performed Addition and subtraction FAILED COMPUTING DEVICES The computing clock was invented in 1623

This device used a single toothed gear. A fire destroyed the device during its construction and the idea was thrown away. drawings for this device were discovered in the 50s but it really had no impact on the computing industry THE EARLY 1800S Punch card technology Mechanical Loom

developed by Joseph-Marie Jacquard The pattern woven by the loom is controlled by the punch card THE LATE 1800S Punch cards used as storage devices

Invented by Herman Hollerith He invented the Tabulator, and the Key punch machine to utilize the punch cards The Tabulator was used to add punched cards The United States Census used these punch cards to complete their results months ahead of schedule Holleriths company soon became the core of IBM ADDING MACHINES

Standard Adding Machine Company 10 key adding machine released in 1901 Invented by William Hopkins All 10 keys were in a single row Dalton Adding Machine -1902 First 10-key printing adding machine with 10 keys in two rows only six made by 1907

OTHER MILESTONES 1906-Vacuum tube aka the Thermionic Valve Invented by Lee De Forest 1906-Hollerith made a plugboard for his tabulator which was re-wireable

to adapt the machine for different uses, used in direct machine calculations until overtaken by stored programs in the 1950s 1919 First Flip-flop circuit design LOGIC GATES Walther Bothe built the first AND logic gate used in physics experiments Received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954

for it despite Nikola Teslas using the same technology in the submarine teleautomaton built in 1899 which he held the patent for IBM 601 Multiplying Punch-1931 This machine read two numbers, up to 8 digits long and punched their product into a punchcard

Alan Turing-1936 Published his paper on computable numbers which addressed the Entscheidungsproblem whose solution was sought by reasoning about a simple and theoretical computer which we call a Turing Machine. George Stibitz made a demonstration of a 1-bit binary adder using relays.

This was the first binary computer, even though it was only used for demonstration Improvements on this machine lead to the Complex Number Calculator in 1940 Z1 Konrad Zuse of Berlin made the first mechanical binary programmable computer

Based on Boolean Algebra and had the most basic of parts used in modern machines it used the binary system and separated storage and control Worked with floating point numbers Z1 -CONT

Used sliding metal parts to store 16 numbers The arithmetic unit didnt work very well Program read from holes punched in discarded 35mm movie film Suffered occasionally from mechanical problems Data values were entered on a numeric keyboard

Outputs displayed via electric lamps It couldnt do loops Wasnt Turing complete because of this John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry Made the first prototype 16-bit Adder It used vacuum tubes to calculate and was

the first to do so Z2 Combined the existing parts of the Z1 with a new arithmetic unit that used relay logic The Z2 also lacked loop capabilities making it still unable to be Turing Complete HELMUT SCHREYER

Made the first 10-bit adder using vacuum tubes Also made a prototype memory using neon lamps HISTORY OF COMPUTING < 1940S 1943 Grace Hopper started to develop a series of base codes for bit sequences that programmers frequently used.

These codes were given labels and were eventually called pseudocode or opcode and led to development of more high level programming languages. 1945 John Von Neumann developed 2 concepts that changed the development of programming languages.

Shared-program technique declared that computer hardware should be simple and shouldnt be hand-wired for each program Conditional control transfer was an idea that subroutines or small blocks of code could be executed in any order instead of having the computer work through each line one at a time. 1950 The Turing Test

Alan Turing published the paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence. In it, he stated that computers could eventually be programmed to possess human-like intelligence. He discussed possible problems and solutions for developing artificial intelligence. He proposed a test in that if a human interrogator was unable to determine if he/she was conversing with a human or computer, then the computer could be considered intelligent. This test later became known as the Turing Test. 1952 Concept of subroutines

Developed Maurice Wilkes, Stanley Gill, and David Wheeler Pieces of code that can be used multiple times in different places of a larger program. Sped up the development of software 1958

The International Algebraic Language was designed Later called ALGOrithmic Language (ALGOL) The formal syntax of the language was set in 1960 It introduced the concept of block instruction, later called procedures.

Niclaus Wirth used this concept and formed PASCAL in 1970 1960 The Perceptron. Frank Rosenblatt created this algorithm to learn through trial and error and tried to imitate the thought processes in humans 1st computer model of neural networks

Used as a basis for more complex neural networks and pattern recognition 1963 ASCII, American Standard Code for Information Interchange, was developed Before, each company coded their computers a different way. Translation tables were needed to exchange data

between different brands After ASCII became the standard character coding, the translation tables were no longer needed. This in turn made it easier to transfer data between different types of computers 1968 The concept of Software Engineering

Computer hardware was rapidly developing and software development was unable to keep up due to overly complicated programs that were difficult to fix and maintain The Garmisch Conference created methods and models to form a more structured software development process. This made it easier to understand and manage large programs as well as reduce the number of errors made during development. Work focused on improving such processes were separated into its own field, software engineering. 1973

Nassi-Schneiderman diagram Isaac Nassi and Ben Schneiderman developed a diagramming technique that created a graphical representation of a program or algorithm. It produced a simpler design than a flowchart Mostly used to provide a general outline to a process as a whole and reduce a large

program into smaller parts that are easier to analyze 1975 PROMPT II Project, Resource, Organization, Managment and Planning Technique

Methodology created by Simpact Systems Ltd to stop the disorder of software development. Created a basic method of delivering a project by a deadline and in budget Slowly evolved into PRINCE, PRojects IN Controlled Environments Used mostly in Europe HISTORY OF COMPUTING 1980S TO PRESENT 1980 DEVELOPMENT OF DOS OS

In October 1980, Microsoft received a commission from IBM to begin developing their first Operating System, MS-DOS 1.0. Previously, no PC OS existed, Microsoft purchased DOS and coded it further. Very basic. Only a single directory existed, the root. Sub-directories were not implemented until the second revision. 1980 DISK STORAGE

Seagate Technology develops the first microcomputer hard disk drive. Only 5 megabytes of data! In comparison, 30 years later common PC hard drives contain up to 400,000 times that amount. (2 Terabytes) 1981 THE FIRST PC In August 1981, IBM unveils the first

Personal Computer. Ran MS-DOS 1.0, with a 4.77 MHz Intel Processor. IBM received 100,000 orders by Christmas. Their model paves the way for the modern PC seen today. 1981 - NOTABLE September TCP/IP standard is established. This protocol carries most

of the common information that travels across the internet. Sony introduces the first 3 floppy drive Previously, floppy disks were only as small as 5 1982 ARRIVAL OF PC GAMING! The Commodore 64 is released. Boasts 64 KB RAM and impressive graphics. Sold 22 million units before discontinuation!

1983 ENTER APPLE, INTERNET Apple releases the first PC with a GUI, known as Lisa. Due to hardware limitations and price ($10,000), Lisa fails in the PC market The military internet known as ARPANET splits into two sectors, private

and civilian. The dawn of the modern internet! Not possible without TCP/IP from 1980 1984 APPLE: ROUND DEUX Apple Computer introduces their first Macintosh PC. It is the first successful PC driven by a mouse with a GUI. Haters and fanboys alike created from

this point forward 1985 C++ C++ becomes the dominant object oriented programming language for its time. Has no idea Java will crush its hopes and dreams in the future Windows is launched, though not as a

complete OS. 1988 CAN OF WORMS OPENED 23 year old Robert Morris sends first self-replicating worm through ARPANET. Infected about 10% of the hosts connected to the network. Receives probation, community service, and a $10,000 fine.

1990 WWW & WINDOWS Tim Berners-Lee, a CERN researcher, develops Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). When combined with ARPANET, creates the internet as we know it today Windows 3.0 debuts, the first popular Windows OS that allowed large scale

GUI applications that could be run simultaneously Still requires DOS (Booooo) 1991 LINUSS LINUX In September, Linus Torvalds releases the first Linux kernel. Developers began improving Linux, and seven years later is known as the first Open Source OS. 1993 YES.

id Software releases Doom. PC gaming gets serious. 1993 - SERIOUSLY The MP3 file format is published. Today, music piracy is one of the biggest ethical battles in computing Intel releases the first Pentium processor. Achieves speeds up to 66 MHz.

1995 JAVA & SCRIPT Java is announced by Sun Microsystems Will prove to be a future rival to C++ in object-oriented programming NetScape announces its development of JavaScript, a web programming language with Java-like syntax 2000 SPEED AND SPACE

Intel has a limited release of its first 1 GHz Pentium III chips Two years later, hard disk drives larger than 137 GB become possible due to new addressing space solutions. TODAY: DEVELOPMENT

One year ago, the first 4 Terabyte hard disk drive was made Intel and other manufacturers market multi-core processors in excess of 3.8 GHz with potential for higher speeds Data transmission has become easier due to the proliferation of wireless internet and the increasing portability of computers TODAY: CONTROVERSIES

With the increase in data availability also comes an increase in data sharing Music and software piracy is a growing problem with many facets Wild West frontier days of the internet are being threatened HISTORY OF THE INTERNET EARLY NETWORKS ARPANET

Rand corporation US Military Network National Physical Laboratory Avoid doubling research

speed up the sharing of information Financial Network Cyclades French Scientific Network ARPANET

Used a mainframe and an Interface Message Processor (IMP) The IMP controlled the network activity Mainframe in charge of initialization of programs and data Used Network Control Protocol (slow) NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY Expected a lot of users and wanted to avoid congestion Packet Switching

Divided send files into small parts Gave rise to several transmission protocols such as TCP and UDP CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS AND NETWORKS Networks communicated using radio waves

A nuclear explosion would cause interference Developed short range waves that used a distributed network Networks used centralized nodes for data If one node was knocked out the entire system would go down Decentralized nodes Multiple node connections to prevent network crash

CYCLADES NETWORK Cyclades used smaller networks in multiple places Focused on communications between networks This is how the term Inter-net was created Instead of processing data at each

computer node in a network they just forwarded the information SERVER BASED NETWORKING Before, telephone companies had the X.25 network which allowed users to pay for access to multiple networks DARPA eliminated this infrastructure with server based networks running the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) developed in 1980

OSI MODEL International Organization for Standardization creates the Open System Interconnection networking model in 1977 Divides the networking channel into separate layers Gave way to the TCP/IP protocol (modern internet!)

Guaranteed inter-network compatibility CAT BREAK HISTORY OF THE WEB ORIGIN OF THE WEB Tim Berners-Lee from CERN tackling the problem of sharing data with scientists around the globe Current systems were inefficient

Not standardized at all Required certain systems to access Web provided a nice alternative, but had a hard time catching on Started as a way to share phone numbers within CERN PROPAGATION OF THE WEB

Web was made available to the public in 1991 Allowed more publicity among the scientific community Also allowed for outside development Stanford Linear accelerator Center (SLAC) used it to publish abstracts

So successful that people in Europe would connect to use it THE WEB BOOMS At first was competing with the Gopher Protocol from the University of Minnesota Two main developments allowed the Web to come ahead: Marc Andreessen creating Mosaic

First web browser for Windows Gopher charging for their service Natural evolution of the web allowed it to become what it is today HISTORY AND OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER ETHICS

DEFINING ETHICS Many different terms used to describe ethical issues involving computers Computer Ethics: Describes the field that examines moral issues pertaining to computing and information technology Information Ethics: Refers to a cluster of ethical concerns regarding the flow of information that is

either enhanced or restricted by computer technology, also called Internet Ethics Cyber Ethics: Includes the above, in addition to issues involving privately owned computer networks and interconnected communications technologies WHY CYBER ETHICS? More accurate term than computer ethics Computer ethics implies a stand alone machine, rather than an interconnected medium Computer ethics implies issues that only affect

computer professionals More accurate than Information/Internet Ethics Information ethics can involve non computer issues Internet ethics doesnt account for ethical issues offline BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPUTERS AND ETHICS Computer ethics founded by Norbert Wiener during WWII

Developed cybernetics to build an antiaircraft cannon Foresaw there could be future social and ethical consequences involving cybernetics, wrote Cybernetics: or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine Wrote Human Use of Human Beings, established first ideas of computer ethics PHASE 1 OF CYBER ETHICS

1950s and 60s Early questions relating to artificial intelligence Can computers think? Should we make computers than can think? What separates thinking computers from humans? Surveillance Issues Big Brother; nationwide databases used to monitor citizens

PHASE 2 OF CYBER ETHICS 1970s and 80s Questions from Phase 1 still relevant Issues of this phase include computers used to commit crimes, debates over software piracy and intellectual piracy (is it still stealing if you can make infinite copies of something?), and privacy issues PHASE 3 OF CYBER ETHICS

1990s to present Issues from previous phases still relevant Invention of the Internet and World Wide Web brings new cyber ethics issues up for debate Free speech online? Anonymity? Where is jurisdiction for crimes committed in

cyberspace? PHASE 4 OF CYBER ETHICS Present day to the near future All issues from previous phases still important Artificial Intelligence, smart objects

wirelessly communicating with each other Nanotechnology and biocomputing leading to new levels of synthesis between man and machine Pervasive nature of technology RECAP Different terms to describe ethics and computers, depending on which aspect you most want to focus on Norbert Wiener, father of computer ethics

Computer ethics can be broken up into 4 phases: 50s and 60s, 70s and 80s, 90s to present, and present to future Issues from previous phases are still relevant today WORKS CITED Bynum, Terrel. "A Very Short History of Computer Ethics." . American Philosophical Association, Summer 2000. Web. 9 Sep 2012. http:// www.southernct.edu/organizations/rccs/oldsi

te/text-only/resources_t/research_t/introducti on_t/bynum_shrt_hist_t.html Tavani, Herman. Ethics and Technology: Controversies, Questions and Strategies for Ethical Computing. 3rd Edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2011. 3-8. Print. WORKS CITED

http://www.thocp.net/timeline/ http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/scrapbook/test.html http://www.psexam.com/Notes-for-Computer-Science/op erating-systems-history-of-operating-system-article/196 0s-%E2%80%93-Garmisch-Conference-The-Concept-ofSoftware-Engineering.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassi%E2%80%93Shneider man_diagram http://www.edrawsoft.com/Nassi-Schneiderman.php http://www.prince2.com/what-is-prince2.asp WORKS CITED

http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline / http://

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_1980%E2%80%931989 http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_1990%E2%80%931999 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_2000-2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_hard_disk_drives http:// inventors.about.com/od/computersoftware/a/Putting-Microsoft-On-The -Map.htm http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa043099.htm http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa051599.htm http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/a/Windows.htm http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/57/Doom_cover_art.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2b/Osi-model.png WORKS CITED

http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/internet101/f/ the_difference_between_internet_and_web.htm http ://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/inter net-versus-world-wideweb.htm http ://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/2002/

Web_vs_Internet.asp http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/TimBook-old/ History.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/5242252. stm DISCUSSION POINTS History According to Moores Law, technology is improving at an exponential rate by the year.

From what youve seen, do you believe this trend will continue? Why or why not? DISCUSSION POINTS Internet / Web How did the sharing of information over the web fuel technology-assisted plagiarism? Does a generational-gap play a role in this viewpoint?

DISCUSSION POINTS Ethics What ethical problems arise from widespread sharing of files? Think Music, Software, Intellectual Property

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