Overview Lab investigations Redox reactions and free energy Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation The Krebs Cycle Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis Oxidative ATP Synthesis Energy efficiency CURRICULUM EXPECTATIONS Overall Expectations C2. investigate the products of metabolic processes such as

cellular respiration and photosynthesis; C3. demonstrate an understanding of the chemical changes and energy conversions that occur in metabolic processes. Specific Expectations C2.1: use appropriate terminology related to metabolism, including, but not limited to: energy carriers, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, ATP synthase, oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis, proton pump. C2.2: conduct a laboratory investigation into the process of cellular respiration to identify the products of the process, interpret the qualitative observations, and display them in an appropriate format. CURRICULUM EXPECTATIONS (CONTD) C3.1: explain the chemical changes and energy

conversions associated with the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration (e.g., in aerobic cellular respiration, glucose and oxygen react to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of heat and ATP). C3.4: describe, compare, and illustrate (e.g., using flow charts) the matter and energy transformations that occur during the processes of cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) and photosynthesis, including the roles of oxygen and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. INVESTIGATION Using Pasco CO2 gas sensor students can observe real-time evidence germinating seeds are

engaged in cellular respiration. CO2 gas increases inside the flask with germinating seeds proof that cellular respiration is occurring as the seeds germinate. AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION OVERVIEW All organisms (except chemoautotrophs) use glucose as a primary source of energy. Through a series of enzyme-controlled redox reactions, the bonds are broken, and the molecule is rearranged into more stable configurations, and energy is released.

oxidized C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + heat + ATP reduced REDOX REACTIONS AND ENERGY C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + heat + ATP Is this oxidation or reduction? C H

O H More ordered Less ordered WHAT ABOUT THE REST? C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + heat + ATP Is this oxidation or reduction?

O O O C More ordered Less ordered Release of Free

Energy! VISUALISING ENERGY REDOX REACTIONS AND NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE ENERGY TRANSFER The ultimate goal of cellular respiration is to capture as much of the available free energy in the form of ATP. Substrate-level phosphorylation: HOW MUCH ENERGY IS RELEASED?

G = -2870 kJ/mol G = -2870 kJ/mol glucose When glucose is burned in a test tube CO2, H2O are formed and heat and light are given off. Cells have evolved methods to trap this energy (ATP) to power endergonic processes in cell. IN A LIVING CELL THINGS GET COMPLICATED Oxygen wont just bump into

glucose and react in the environment. What would happen if it could? Solution: activation energy How does a cell control this process? Enzymes catalyze and control. CELLULAR RESPIRATION PROCESS Stage 4 Stage 1 Stage 3

Stage 2 STAGE 1: GLYCOLYSIS 6-carbon glucose two 3-carbon pyruvates Glyco = sugar; lysis = split Cytoplasm This is a complicated process, but dont worry students only need to identify and understand the important

parts. So whats important? The points in the pathway where things are made or 2 ATP are used in step 1 and 3. Phosphate groups are added to the glucose molecule

In step 4 & 5 the molecule is split into DHAP and G3P. An enzyme converts DHAP to G3P. This produces two molecules of G3P. Step 6 produces two NADH (one from each G3P). In step 7, two ATP molecules are

produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. The ATP debt is paid. In step 10, two ATP molecules are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation and pyruvate is formed. ENERGY YIELD FOR GLYCOLYSIS

4 ATP produced 2 ATP used 2 ATP produced net 2 NADH produced 2 mol ATP x 31 kJ/mol ATP = 62 kJ Total free energy in 1 mol of glucose = 2870 kJ Energy conversion efficiency = 62 kJ 2.2% 2870 kJ x 100% = STAGE 2: PYRUVATE OXIDATION

Two pyruvate molecules are transported through the mitochondrial membrane into the matrix and acetyl-CoA is formed. PYRUVATE OXIDATION 1. Carboxyl group is removed as CO2. 2. The remaining two-carbon portion is oxidized by NAD + and forms an acetyl group. 3. Coenzyme A attaches to the acetyl and forms acetyl-CoA. PRODUCTS OF PYRUVATE OXIDATION 2 pyruvate + 2NAD+ + 2CoA 2acetyl-CoA + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2CO2

2 AcetylCoA 2 NADH 2 CO2 2H + STAGE 3: THE KREBS CYCLE Discovered in 1937 by Sir Hans Krebs. In 1953, Krebs and Fritz Albert Lipmann

shared the Nobel Prize for their discoveries. Krebs cycle is a cyclic series of reactions that transfers energy from organic molecules to ATP, NADH, FADH2 and removes carbon atoms as CO2. Retrieved from:

Two molecules of acetyl-CoA form for every molecule of glucose: the Krebs Cycle occurs twice for each molecule of glucose. CoA is recycled.

Energy is harvested in steps 3, 4, 5, 6, 8. + NAD is reduced to NADH in steps 3, 4, 8. Step 5 produces ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation

. In step 6 energy is harvested. FAD is reduced to FADH2. The C atoms from the glucose molecule exit the process as CO2 in

steps 3 and 4. FADH2 carries less energy than NADH. BY THE END OF THE KREBS CYCLE 6 carbons from glucose CO2 2 ATP

2 ATP 2 FADH2 glycolysis Krebs Krebs 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH

glycolysis pyruvate oxidation Krebs STAGE 4: ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND CHEMIOSMOSIS NADH and FADH2 transfer the hydrogen atom electrons to a series of proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane called the electron transport chain.

5. The whole process is highly exergonic and the free energy produced pumps H+ across the membrane and creates a proton gradient. 4. At the final complex, oxygen oxidizes the cytochrome oxidase complex and forms water.

1. The first protein complex picks up the hydrogen atom from NADH and Q strips the electrons which causes the protein complex to let go of the proton. 2. Q shuttles the electrons to the next complex. The first protein complex is oxidized and the second is reduced.

3. The electrons become more stable as they move along the chain and free energy is released. This energy moves H+ across the NADH VS. FADH2 NADH can pass its electrons to the first protein complex in the ETC. FADH2 transfers its electrons first to Q

(ubiquinone). NADH can pump 3 protons FADH2 can only pump 2 protons. As a result, NADH forms 3 ATP molecules and FADH2 forms 2 ATP molecules. NADH produced by glycolysis in the cytoplasm is brought into the matrix by a glycerol-phosphate shuttle and converts it to FADH2. FINALLY: CHEMIOSMOSIS AND OXIDATIVE ATP SYNTHESIS Remember: there is now an electrochemical gradient that is storing free energy. Electrical component: higher positive

charge in the intermembrane space than the matrix. Chemical component: higher concentration of protons in the intermembrane space than the matrix. This gradient creates a voltage across the membrane much like a battery. The protons are unable to pass through the phospholipid bilayer unaided. 1. Protons cannot diffuse across the

membrane alone. They travel through proton channels associated with ATPase. 2. Proton-motive force (PMF) moves the protons through the ATPase. 3. The free energy from protons moving through the ATPase drives the synthesis

of ATP from ADP and Pi in the matrix. Peter Mitchell won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1978 for discovering this ATP generating mechanism. STUDENT ACTIVITY: MODEL MAKING & VIDEOS WHAT NEXT? ATP molecules are

transported through the mitochondrial membranes by facilitated diffusion into the cytoplasm of the cell where they can drive endergonic processes like movement, active transport, and synthesis reactions in the cell. EFFICIENCY Aerobic respiration captures 32% of the available free energy of one molecule of glucose. Using the actual yield of 30 ATP per glucose

molecule: Efficiency = 30 mol ATP x 31 kJ/mol ATP / 2870 kJ x 100% = 32% This is much more efficient than glycolysis! In comparison, the energy efficiency of a car is approximately 25%.

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