Human Geography: Population Why Is Population Increasing at

Human Geography: Population Why Is Population Increasing at

Human Geography: Population Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries? World Population Problems and Solutions

Population growth, resource consumption, and the environment the threat to the ecosystem is linked to human population size and resource use per person. Resource use, waste production environmental degradation are accelerated by population growth.

Indicators of severe environmental stress include: the growing loss of biodiversity, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing deforestation worldwide, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain,

loss of topsoil, and shortages of water, Shortages of food, Shortages of fuel-wood in many parts of the world. Developed (rich industrialized), make up 23% of the worlds population, but use 85% of worlds resources

The Great Dilemma If all people of the world consumed fossil fuels and other natural resources at the current rate of the developed countries, this would intensify our already unsustainable demands on the environment. Yet development is a legitimate expectation of less developed countries

Population Key Terms Demography: the study of human populations; helps us understand the causes and consequences of population change THE CENSUS -counting and collecting

information about a population -in Canada a formal census is taken every 5 years Reasons for Census inaccuracies: people who do not have permanent addresses, who live on the streets, or who choose to avoid the census.

in some countries, many births and deaths go unrecorded. This may stem from poor communication networks as well as illiteracy.

Population RatesGo figure! Crude Birth Rate (#of births in one year divided by population then multiplied by 1000) Crude Death Rate (#of deaths in one year divided by population then multiplied by 1000) Birth Rate Death Rate + Net Migration = Population Growth Rate

Limits to Population Growth Thomas Malthus Thomas Malthus believed that his nation (England)

would not be able to produce enough food to keep up with its population growth rate. Malthus' Essay on Population Preventative checks to reduce the birth

rate Moral restraint, and birth control (only for upper classes) Positive checks increased the death rate famine, misery, plague and war (for lower classes) Carrying Capacity Malthus belief is the background

of the newer concept of carrying capacity. Carrying capacity refers to the level at which a land can no longer support its people (Nutritional density) Where Do 6.5 Billion People Live? Population distribution

35 % of earths land is not good for settlement of earths population live on 5% of land 90% live on 20% of land Graphing World Population 2 Types of Graphs

2 Types of graphs to track populations in a country: 1) The Demographic Transition 2) Population pyramids 2 Types of Graphs 2 Types of graphs to track populations in a country: 1) The Demographic Transition

1. High Stationary 2. Early Expanding 5. Declining growth 3. Late Expanding 4. Low Stationary 2) Population pyramids Age distribution

Sex ratio Shows countries in different stages of demographic transition Shows demographic transition and world population growth Demographic Transition Model

Stage 1 - High Stationary Birth Rate and Death rate are both high. Population growth is slow and fluctuating. Reasons Birth Rate is high as a result of:

Lack of family planning High Infant Mortality Rate: putting babies in the 'bank' Need for workers in agriculture Religious beliefs Children as economic assets Death Rate is high because of:

High levels of disease Famine

Lack of clean water and sanitation Lack of health care War Competition for food from predators such as rats Lack of education Typical of Least Developed Countries (LEDC's) today. Demographic Transition Model

Stage 2 - Early Expanding Birth Rate remains high. Death Rate is falling. Population begins to rise steadily. Reasons

Death Rate is falling as a result of: Improved health care (e.g. Smallpox Vaccine) Improved Hygiene (Water for drinking boiled) Improved sanitation Improved food production and storage

Improved transport for food Decreased Infant Mortality Rates Typical of Britain in 19th century; Bangladesh; Nigeria Demographic Transition Model Stage 3 - Late Expanding Birth Rate starts to fall. Death Rate continues to

fall. Population rising. Reasons:

Family planning available Lower Infant Mortality Rate Increased mechanization reduces need for workers Increased standard of living Changing status of women Typical of Britain in late 19th and early 20th century; China; Brazil. Demographic Transition Model

Stage 4 - Low Stationary Birth Rate and Death Rate both low. Population steady. Economy is settled Fully developed Middle Class Political stability Typical of USA; Sweden; Japan; Britain

Demographic Transition Model Stage 5? Declining Population

Theoretical Death Rate exceeds Birth Rate. Negative NIR Mostly Eastern European Countries Russia Belarus Germany Italy

Japan Many developed countries are predicted to experience population decline. Factor of more elderly than young population in these countries Fewer young women who will be entering their childbearing years Population Pyramids Population Pyramids = Graph that represents

a populations age and sex composition. Population Pyramid Overview The most important demographic characteristic of a population is its age-sex structure. Population Pyramids graphically display this information to improve understanding of demographics. They display the percentage or actual amount

of a population broken down by gender and age. The five-year age increments on the y-axis allow the pyramid to reflect long term trends in the birth and death rates but also reflect shorter term baby-booms, wars, and epidemics. Population Pyramids The shape of a pyramid is primarily determined by the crude death rate in the community.

Dependency ratio-the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years. People who are 0-14 and 65-plus normally are classified as dependents. The graying of a population refers to the aging of a community. Population pyramids also foretell future problems from present population policies or practices. Ex. Chinas population policies

skewed in favor of males. Dependency ratio Number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years Indicates financial burden on a societys productive population Dependency Ratio = measure of # of dependents

old and young that each 100 people in productive years (15 64) 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. High Dependency Ratio Sex Ratio The number of males per hundred

females in the population is the sex ratio. In Europe and North America the ratio of men to women is about 95:100 There are three key types of population pyramids: Rapid Growth:

This pyramid of the Philippines shows a triangleshaped pyramid and reflects a high growth rate of about 2.1

percent There are three key types of population pyramids: Slow Growth: In the United States, the population is growing at a rate

of about 1.7 percent annually. This growth rate is reflected in the more square-like structure of the pyramid. Note the lump in the pyramid between

the ages of about In wealthy countries with very slow rate of population growth population is nearly equally divided - so pyramids have Almost vertical sides. The % of a countrys population in each age group strongly influences demand for goods and services within that national economy.

Country with high % of young has high demand for educational facilities and health delivery services. There are three key types of population pyramids: Negative Growth: Germany is experiencing a

period of negative growth (-0.1%). As negative growth in a country continues, the population is reduced. A population can shrink due to a low

birth rate and a stable death rate. Increased emigration may also be a Countries In Different Stages of Demographic Transition

Rapid Growth in Cape Verde Fig. 2-17: Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950, is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects the impacts of famines and out-migration. Moderate Growth in Chile Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the

1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s. Low Growth in Denmark Fig. 2-19: Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.

2.5 The Demographic Transition POPULATION PYRAMID AND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION FOR CAPE VERDE (LEFT), CHILE (CENTER), DENMARK (RIGHT) 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Demographic Transition and World Population Growth How many countries are in each of

the following stages of the demographic transition? Stage 1- None Stage 2 and 3- majority of countries (i.e. Egypt, Kenya, India) Stage 4- USA, Japan, France, UK Stage 5 Germany?

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