Establishing Effective Classroom Management Gary Duhon, PhD, Professor
Establishing Effective Classroom Management Gary Duhon, PhD, Professor OSU Is discipline a problem? One of the earliest education text was on classroom management (1907) Opinion polls rank behavior problems as the major issue in schools Children today are tyrants. They contradict their
parents, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers." Socrates Ancient Greek Philosopher, 470 BC-399 BC SoIs discipline a problem? Yes, but its nothing new. Student behavior has been a problem ever since there were students But it can be managed if we first can understand it. Myths about behavior and
behavior management Lets Lets examine examine some some myths myths and and make make our our own own decisions decisions
Changing another persons behavior is coercive. Cohesion = To cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means Is behavior change coercive? Yes Is this bad? Yes and No
Use of Reinforcement to change behavior is bribery. Bribery = the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage Typically has an illegal or illicit intent Reward is provided before the behavior Reinforcement Behaviors are typically agreed upon Reinforcement is delivered after the behavior
If you use rewards children will behave only for rewards. If done incorrectly this is true However a good behavior management plan will promote a shift to less obvious or more acceptable reinforcement Children should work for intrinsic reinforcers. Very few if any behavior is intrinsically reinforced Even if we are unaware of it most of what we do is the
result of external reinforcement Even if you believe the above statement, it is a futile way to approach things, So what do you do if a child is not intrinsically reinforced to do/ learn something? All children should be treated the same way. Many teachers believe that treating one child in a different way will make other children act in different ways.
If Tom gets rewarded for good behavior why cant I? This is not typically the case Children are usually aware of the differences other children possess As well as the different needs they have Adults treat children differently even if they dont know it And kids are keenly aware of this
So Behavior can be a problem We can choose to admire the problem or act. The first action should be to prepare for the problem. Preparation Preparing for behavior problems is a great Preventative Strategies A stitch in time saves nine. How: Establish and Teach Expectations for Behavior Moving Upstream:
A Story of Prevention and Intervention In a small town, a group of fishermen gathered down at the river. Not long after they got there, a child came floating down the rapids calling for help. One of the group on the shore quickly dove in and pulled the child out. Minutes later another child came, then another, and then many more children were coming down the river. Soon everyone was diving in and dragging children to
the shore, then jumping back in to save as many as they could. In the midst of all this frenzy, one of the group was seen walking away. Her colleagues were irate. How could she leave when there were so many children to save? After long hours, to everyones relief, the flow of children stopped, and the group could finally catch their breath. At that moment, their colleague came back. They turned on her and angrily shouted: HOW COULD YOU WALK
OFF WHEN WE NEEDED EVERYONE HERE TO SAVE THE CHILDREN? She replied, It occurred to me that someone ought to go upstream and find out why so many kids were falling into the river. What I found is that the old wooden bridge had several planks missing, and when some children tried to jump over the gap, they couldnt make it and fell through into the river. So I got someone to fix the bridge.
All Classroom should have behavioral norms Norms are Expectations of behavior the teacher has for the students Clear expectations from the teacher help Enhance feelings of safety and security Decrease the complexity of the classroom Reduce ambiguity Research has found
Effective managers had Clear rules for general conduct Procedures or routines for carrying out specific task Effective managers also Spent the first few days teaching rules and procedures to students Once taught, rules are reviewed regularly to ensure retention Taught rules as carefully as they would have taught academic content
What does this mean? Teachers must Decide how we want our students to behave Make these expectations absolutely clear to students Deliver these expectation as we would any curriculum material Instruct, test, review as necessary So
We should have a curriculum and lesson plans for behavior This can be at the individual teacher level, grade level or site level. Teaching student how to behave Behavior should be taught as a lesson or lessons Define terms Discuss rationales Provide examples Tell Show
Do Prevention Good preventative strategies will reduce or eliminate most of your behavioral issues, No preventative strategy will eliminate all problem behavior In order to deal with these behaviors we must understand where they come from. Understanding Behavior
How should we think about behavior problems? Are behavior problems diagnoses? Emotional Disturbance? Disruptive Behavior Disorder? Oppositional Defiant Disorder? Conduct Disorder? These are not behavior problems they are descriptions of classes of symptoms that cluster together just like other disorders (SLD)
Emotional Disturbance (probably the most misunderstood) A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. Includes schizophrenia - does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. Diagnosis vs. Behavior Which would you rather try Cure a mental disorder. Change a behavior.
I want to address problems I can understand, so I focus on behavior I dont fixate/admire on the disorder Assumptions of Behavior Now that the focus is behavior, lets talk behavior. Most behaviors are learned We are born with only a few behaviors We must learn many to survive
We learn through our experiences in the environment To change behavior we must provide new experiences Most behaviors are stimulus-specific We act differently in different situations Rates of the same behavior in different situations can be very different Most behaviors can be taught, changed or modified Traditional views of psychology is that behaviors are
associated with underlying conditions However, there is a great deal of research that demonstrates our ability to change behavior regardless of underlying conditions In essence we should never say thats just how he is Behavior change goals should be specific and clearly defined When we want to change behavior we must first specify what we want to change
Not his attitude, but talking back Not his aggression, but his hitting We must also specify and amount or intensity that is acceptable Not to be quieter, but to speak in a voice that can be heard no more than 5 feet away Behavior change programs should focus on the here and now We cannot change history and it has already impacted
behavior in whatever way it will Historical events may help us explain and understand behavior, but they dont help us change it Behavior change programs should focus on the childs environment Internal explanations for behavior are useless in making change because we Cannot ever know if we have changed the internal state of a person If some behavior is a result of genetics we cannot change your
genetics We can however, change your environment Focus on the setting we can change Behavior change programs may need to be individualized Everyone is different Different in what we do, when we do it and why we do it Individualization assist in improving the accuracy of our program and ensuring that we dont blame the child
If our attempt does not work it is because we did not make the proper adjustments Focus on Behavior Addressing what can be understood. Understanding Behavior What about behavior can be understood? What Why
When What cannot be understood? Beliefs Feelings Drives When we say behavior, what do we mean? An overt response Things that a person does that is observable and measurable
Observable It can be seen by all Measurable It can be counted How much How long How intense Excesses and Deficits Behavioral excesses
Engaging in a behavior too much Identify what the student gets or gets out of the behavior The when is useful too Behavioral deficit Engaging in a behavior too little Does the student have the skills? Do they know when to do it? Behavioral excesses These interventions will focus on reducing the
occurrence of the behavior of concern by either suppressing the behavior or establishing a competing behavior. Must identify a replacement behavior to access the consequence in a more appropriate manner Behavioral deficits Behavior Examples
Non-Examples Hitting Running Sleeping Eating Talking Aggression Anger Sad
Sleepy Mad Controlling Other important aspects of a behavior Antecedents When Consequences Why
Antecedents (the when) Stimuli that occur prior to behavior Anything you can see, hear, taste, touch or smell is a stimulus Signals that a particular behavior can or should occur Light turning green Whistle blowing at a football game Smell of bacon in the morning Consequence (the why)
Changes in the environment that follow a behavior The change can be the Addition of something new Removal of something already present The consequence can strengthen or weaken a behavior Reinforcement Punishment Know your ABCs If you know your ABCs you understand behavior
Antecedent Behavior Consequence Matching the Function to the Intervention Using the When and the Why Antecedent Interventions When: interventions Eliminate or change the antecedent
Teach the student a different response to the antecedent Consequence Interventions Why interventions Stop the problem behavior from producing the consequence that maintains it. Change the situation so that an appropriate behavior leads to the consequence that was maintaining it. Change the situation so that the student will lose interest in the maintaining consequence
A new reinforcer Make access to a new reinforcer contingent on new or alternative behavior In other words set up a competing situation that will interfere with the current A-B-C situation. Teaching new behaviors (skill deficits problems/ cant do) Very similar to academic skills
Select the behavior to be taught Explain why it is important Model the behavior Guided practice Independent practice Diversity practice
Increasing the use of current skills (performance deficits/ wont do) This focuses on two basic procedures Ensuring that the student knows when to perform the behavior (antecedent manipulation) Providing cues for when the behavior is appropriate Ensuring that there is adequate reinforcement to perform the behavior. (consequent manipulation)
This reinforcement can come in the form of natural or programmed reinforcement. Problem Type Antecedent Intervention Consequence Intervention Eliminate/Change the Antecedent Teach new response to Antecedent
Stop behavior from producing the consequence Behavioral Excess Provide consequence for appropriate behavior only Decrease interest in consequence Provide new consequence for appropriate behavior Teach the skill
Behavioral Deficit Reinforce the behavior at a higher rate Dont forget Once a skill is acquired, it may not be performed because The student may not know when to perform it. Skill deficits can also include performance problems. Natural reinforcers may not be enough to initiate the new
behavior. Behavioral Interventions Specific Examples Token Economy Use of token reinforcers to reinforce behavior Can be used to Increase new behaviors Increase competing behaviors To reduce problem behaviors
Token is used to delay delivery of the real reinforcer until a more appropriate time Association of token with the reinforcer is necessary What functions would work best with this intervention? Behaviors that are the function of either positive or negative reinforcers When students get something for a problem behavior or gets out of something give them something better for an appropriate behavior. Problem Type
Antecedent Intervention Consequence Intervention Eliminate/Change the Antecedent Teach new response to Antecedent Stop behavior from producing the consequence Behavioral Excess PROVIDE CONSEQUENCE FOR
APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR ONLY Decrease interest in consequence PROVIDE NEW CONSEQUENCE FOR APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR Teach the skill Behavioral Deficit REINFORCE THE BEHAVIOR AT A HIGHER RATE
Time Out Withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of positive reinforcement for a specified period of time What functions would work best with this intervention? Behaviors that are the function of positive reinforcement When students get attention for a problem behavior remove access to attention when the behavior occurs. What functions would be inappropriate for this intervention? Behaviors that are the function of negative reinforcers
(escape/avoidance) If the student does not want to be there telling them to go away is exactly what they want. Problem Type Antecedent Intervention Consequence Intervention Eliminate/Change the Antecedent
Teach new response to Antecedent STOP BEHAVIOR FROM PRODUCING THE CONSEQUENCE Behavioral Excess Provide consequence for appropriate behavior only DECREASE INTEREST IN
CONSEQUENCE Provide new consequence for appropriate behavior Teach the skill Behavioral Deficit Reinforce the behavior at a higher rate Time out procedures are often done incorrectly
Time Out Requires A reinforcing time in Response contingent loss of access to time in Punishment effect Types of time out Exclusionary Physical removal from the environment Potential problem New environment may be reinforcing
Nonexclusionary Planned ignoring Contingent observation Removal of a reinforcer Signaled discrimination
Advantages to time out Easy High degrees of acceptability Rapid suppression of behavior Use of Time Out Time out length Brief is better unless Ensuring that time in is reinforcing Why?
Monitor accurate implementation and effect What impact might poor implementation have? Problem Type Antecedent Intervention Consequence Intervention Eliminate/Change the Antecedent
Teach new response to Antecedent Stop behavior from producing the consequence Behavioral Excess Provide consequence for appropriate behavior only Decrease interest in consequence Provide new consequence for appropriate behavior
Teach the skill Behavioral Deficit Reinforce the behavior at a higher rate End Questions? Gary Duhon, PhD [email protected]
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