Nutritionally independent sporophytes and gametophytes Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (1n)
1n spores Fig. 8.4 from the text Fern Life Cycle Spermatophytes (seed plants)
Secondary xylem (wood), heterospory, seeds Includes gymnosperms and angiosperms Fig. 7.12 from the text
Gymnosperms Conifers, gingko, cycads, Gnetales
Heterosporous (male and female sporangia) Sporophyte-dominant Antheridia lost, replaced by pollen (= male gametophyte) Archegonia present but reduced, embedded in nutritive tissue of the megasporangium (+ integument = ovule)
Bear seeds (= fertilized, embryo-containing, unopening ovule) Female cone with each scale bearing usually two ovules; directly exposed to pollen
Male cones with each scale bearing two or more microsporangia pine pollen Section of female pine cone
pine microsporangia Pine seeds Pine seedlingnext sporophyte generation
Dicotyledons, monocotyledons Heterosporous Sporophyte-dominant Pollen = male gametophyte Archegonia lost; embryo sac = female gametophyte; ovules enclosed in
carpels (indirect pollination) Double fertilization produces zygote + primary endosperm nucleus Flower = a short, determinate shoot bearing highly modified leaves, some of which are fertile (i.e., bearing either microsporangia or megasporangia),
with the megasporangia in carpels Fig. 4.17 from the text: Angiosperm life cycle Animal pollination syndromes Wind pollination
Human Factors (ergonomics) integrates knowledge from multiple fields. Engineering. Psychology. Physiology/Kinesiology. Biology. Anthropology. SJSU has a Human Factors program in the Industrial and Systems Engineering Department Source: Integrated Safety Management, Berkeley Labwikipedia
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