Plant Anatomy: Intro to Plant Reproduction

Plant Anatomy: Intro to Plant Reproduction

Green Plants Biol 366 Spring 2011 Tree of Life: The Big Picture now Bacteria

Archaea Eukaryotes >2 bya

>3.5 bya ca. 4 bya membrane-bound nucleus, organelles, etc.

Fig. 7.1 from the text Green plants share: Chlorophylls a and b Starch storage Stellate flagellar structure

Certain gene transfers from the chloroplast to the nucleus Green plant diversity: > 300,000 species Two major groups: 1) chlorophytes (marine and other green algae) and 2)

streptophytes [freshwater green algae and embryophytes (= land plants)] A major branch (clade) in the eukaryotic Tree of Life Fig. 7.2 from the text

Chlorophytes: Fig. 7.3 from the text Basal streptophytes: Fig. 7.4 from the text Conjugation in Spirogyra Haplontic life cycle

(haploid dominant or zygotic meiosis) The only diploid cell the zygote Charales Haplontic but some have

multicellular gametangia (gamete-producing structures) Embryophytes (land plants) share: Cuticle Alternation of generations (multicellular

sporophyte and multicellular gametophyte) Multicellular gametangia (gameteproducing structures) Multicellular sporangium (sporeproducing structure) Embryo (young sporophyte) Bryophytes

Hornworts, liverworts, mosses Gametophyte-dominant No vascular tissue (except conducting cells in a few mosses) Separate male and female gametophytes Sperm must swim to the egg, therefore

need water for fertilization and therefore must remain small Fig. 7.5 from the text: liverworts, mosses and hornworts Fig. 7.6 from the text

Hornwort sporophytes and gametophytes Liverwort thallus (gametophyte) showing air pores Liverwort Multicellular gametangia (male = antheridia)

Liverwort Multicellular gametangia (female = archegonia) Oogamy Retention of zygote within the female gametophyte

Multicellular embryo Moss male gametophyte (= antheridia) Capsule = sporangium of the sporophyte

Tracheophytes (vascular plants) Vascular tissue (tracheids) present Include lycophytes, monilophytes (ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns), and spermatophytes (seed plants)

Fig. 7.8 from the text Monilophytes and Lycophytes Ferns, horsetails, quillworts, whiskferns, etc. Independent gametophytes and sporophytes Sperm must still swim to the egg

Most are homosporous; a few evolved heterospory Many homosporous ferns have means of avoiding self-fertilization Lycophytes

Isoetes (quillwort) Lycopodium and friends Selaginella Monilophytes

(ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns) horsetails Whisk-fern (Psilotum) Ferns (Leptosporangia)

Nutritionally independent sporophytes and gametophytes Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (1n)

1n spores Fig. 8.4 from the text Fern Life Cycle Spermatophytes (seed plants)

Secondary xylem (wood), heterospory, seeds Includes gymnosperms and angiosperms Fig. 7.12 from the text

Gymnosperms Conifers, gingko, cycads, Gnetales

Heterosporous (male and female sporangia) Sporophyte-dominant Antheridia lost, replaced by pollen (= male gametophyte) Archegonia present but reduced, embedded in nutritive tissue of the megasporangium (+ integument = ovule)

Bear seeds (= fertilized, embryo-containing, unopening ovule) Female cone with each scale bearing usually two ovules; directly exposed to pollen

Male cones with each scale bearing two or more microsporangia pine pollen Section of female pine cone

pine microsporangia Pine seeds Pine seedlingnext sporophyte generation

Angiosperms

Dicotyledons, monocotyledons Heterosporous Sporophyte-dominant Pollen = male gametophyte Archegonia lost; embryo sac = female gametophyte; ovules enclosed in

carpels (indirect pollination) Double fertilization produces zygote + primary endosperm nucleus Flower = a short, determinate shoot bearing highly modified leaves, some of which are fertile (i.e., bearing either microsporangia or megasporangia),

with the megasporangia in carpels Fig. 4.17 from the text: Angiosperm life cycle Animal pollination syndromes Wind pollination

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