Phrases Prepositional Phrases, Appositives, Participles, Gerunds, and Infinitives Prepositional Phrases Can function as adjectives modifying nouns or pronouns by telling what kind? or which one? Examples of Adjective Phrases The tepee of buffalo hide was sturdy. The decoration on the hide was painted carefully. The drawing of a warrior on the tepee was painted in red. Prepositional Phrases Can function as adjectives modifying nouns or
pronouns by telling what kind? or which one? Examples of Adjective Phrases The tepee of buffalo hide was sturdy. The decoration on the hide was painted carefully. The drawing of a warrior on the tepee was painted in red. Create your own examples of adjective phrases. Prepositional Phrases Can function as adverbs modifying verbs, adjectives, or adverbs by telling When? Where? How? or to what extent? Examples of Adverb Phrases Modifying a verb:
Abstract animal figures were carved in totem poles. Southwestern art dates back before Columbus. Modifying an adjective: The forest was quiet before dawn. They are happiest at the playground. Modifying an adverb: He arrived late for lunch. Create your own examples of adverb phrases. Appositives An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed near another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain it.
Examples A tribe of the Northeast, the Iroquois, made pottery, baskets, beadwork, and quill work. (Notice the appositive is set of by commas which indicates that the appositive in NOT essential to the meaning of the sentence. The Native American writer N. Scott Momaday won a Pulitzer Prize for his novel House Made of Dawn. (Notice the appositives are NOT set of by commas because they ARE ESSENTIAL to the meaning of the sentence. Symbols of wealth, copper and horses, were important to
Northwestern tribes. (Notice: appositives can be compounded.) Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase is a noun or pronoun with modifiers, placed next to a noun or pronoun to add information and details. Examples The horrible smoke, a blend of burnt rubber and industrial fumes, made her choke. The man took his daughter, a talented artist, to see Native American paintings.
The dog, a large Saint Bernard, crushed the flowers in the garden. Appositives and Appositive Phrases An appositives and appositive phrases can be used to combine sentences with similar ideas. Examples The Navajo is a tribe in the West. They developed silver-working skills for making jewelry. The Navajo, a tribe in the West, developed silverworking skills for making jewelry. Sugar cane is a plant with a long stem. It was used to make armor for Creek warriors. Sugar cane, a plant with a long stem, was used to make armor for Creek warriors.
Participles A participle is a form of a verb that can act as an adjective. Present Participles A whining sound came from the mans horse. Competing, each tribe tried to show off its riches. Past Participles The ground corn was used to make tortillas. Disgusted, Len walked away without saying goodbye. Participle or Verb? The same words can be used as verbs or as
participles. Because verbs often have endings such as ing or ed, you must be careful not to confuse them with participles acting as adjectives. Verbs The train was chugging down the track. The directions confused her. Participles The chugging train puffed down the track. Confused, she could not follow the directions. Participial Phrases A participial phrase is a participle modified by
an adverb or adverb phrase or accompanied by a complement. The entire phrase acts as an adjective. Examples: Studying carefully, she learned much about Native American people. Frightened by its sudden appearance, I yelled, Snake! Her sister, using a calm voice, told us to stand still. Participial Phrases Placement A participial phrase can usually be placed either before or after the word it modifies. Gleaming in the sun, Aztec temples and towers
were awesome. Aztec temples and towers, gleaming in the sun, were awesome. Punctuation Participial phrases may be set off by commas as you have seen in the previous examples. However, when a participial phrase distinguishes one person, place or thing from another, it is NOT set off by commas. The man wearing the war bonnet was a chief of the Sioux people. Gerunds A gerund is a form of a verb that acts as a noun.
Gerunds always end in ing and always act as a noun. Example Subject Public speaking is often feared. Direct Object On their vacation, the Millers discovered canoeing. Indirect Object - His performance gives acting a bad name. Predicate Nominative One relaxing exercise is swimming. Object of a Preposition The Aztecs obtained much of their food by fishing. Appositive I have a new hobby, cooking. Gerund Phrases A gerund phrase is a gerund with modifiers or
complements. Examples Subject Carving in stone was how the Aztecs made their calendars. Direct Object Vickis morning routine includes showering leisurely. Indirect Object - His performance gives acting a bad name. Predicate Nominative Denises greatest accomplishment was weaving a blanket. Object of a Preposition The Aztecs were skilled at building in dense forests. Appositive I have a new hobby, baking decorative cakes. Gerunds and Gerund Phrases A gerund is a form of a verb that acts as a noun.
Gerunds always end in ing and function as nouns. Subject: Writing essays can be difficult for some. Direct Object: On their vacation, the Smiths discovered canoeing. Indirect Object: His performance gives acting a bad name. Predicate Nominative: One relaxing exercise is swimming. Object of a Preposition: The Aztecs obtained much of their food by fishing. Appositive: I have a new hobby, cooking. Verb, Participle, or Gerund?
Sometimes distinguishing between verbs, participles, and gerunds can be difficult. Verb: Samson is cooking dinner. Participle: Cooking dinner, Samson moved quickly around the kitchen. Gerund: Cooking dinner is usually Samsons responsibility. Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases An infinitive is a form of a verb that generally
appears with the word to and acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Examples: Subject To succeed requires perseverance. Direct Object Alone and frightened, she wanted to survive. Predicate Nominative The purpose of pictures was to record an idea. Object of a Preposition He had no choice except to relent.
Appositive His goal, to travel, was never realized. Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases Examples: Adjective The team lost its will to finish the season. (describes will; notice it follows a direct object.) Adverb I was sad to leave Disneyworld. (answers why I was
sad; notice it follows a predicate adjective.) Andy worked to overcome the obstacle. (answers why Andy worked; notice it follows an action verb but it DOES NOT answer the question what? Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases Other points about infinitives. Infinitives used as direct objects can have a subject that precedes them: We wanted her to clean the garage. (direct object) Hidden infinitives are infinitives without to. Ill help build the birdhouse. (to build direct object)
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