Part III: The Great Depression ("The Dirty Thirties")
The Roaring 20s and Dirty 30s History 30 The Roaring Twenties!: A Prelude A Time of Change
When Canada was founded only men could be legal citizens of the country and thus have the right to vote. Suffragists fought for the right of all women to vote. By 1900, propertied women had won some voting rights.
Emmeline Pankhurst In 1916 women in Manitoba gained the right to vote. In 1918 women won the right to vote federally.
Nellie McClung Overview The 1920s were a time of high optimism and economic boom; however, it was also a time of unchecked financial management
which leads to a tragic event What do you know about the 1920s? What famous hairstyle became popular in the 1920s? The bob
What do you know about the 1920s? What style of music became popular in the 1920s? jazz What do you know
about the 1920s? What was the 1920s most famous gangster? Al Capone What do you know
about the 1920s? What is the meaning behind some of this 20s slang? Bees knees Wonderful person Bunk
nonsense Hep Swanky cool Elegant, fancy
Real McCoy genuine Hooch liquor
Keen Flapper cheaters attractive 20s girl (short hair, short skirt) Eye glasses The War is Over!
The Great War has just ended and people look forward to going back to a normal life
New methods of factory production made it cheaper to make everything from cars to radios to telephones.
The North American economy boomed, creating an immense amount of wealth and a huge of range of exciting new products. Although this did not actually create a
large number of new jobs most North Americans felt they were living through golden times. Industry is Booming! Automobiles are becoming extremely
popular resulting in mass production to keep up with the demand Increase in Wealth Number of millionaires 1914: 7,000 1928: 35,000
Number of Model T Fords produced: 1900: 4000 1929: 4.8 million. Average workers annual wage 1919: $1,158 1927: $1,304
New forms of Entertainment! Radio Radio shows become extremely popular. People tune in every night to listen to famous radio dramas such as The Shadow
William Lyon Mackenzie King First elected in 1921 (Liberal Party) Became Canadas longest serving PM Believed that keeping Canada united was of the utmost importance.
Foreign Policy Canada wanted to stay out of future European conflicts. the decision of Canada on any important issue, domestic or foreign, we believe should be made by the people of Canada. -King Statute of Westminster, 1931 gave
Canada control over its own foreign policy. Winnipeg General Strike There were not enough jobs for soldiers returning from the war. Robert Bordens govt refused to pay the pensions the soldiers demanded. Labour unions were outlawed.
Metal workers, supported by 30,000 tradesmen, tied up the city of Winnipeg for 6 weeks. Ended on Bloody Saturday when the RCMP broke up the strike 9 (2 strikers were killed). Problems on the Rise
Economic Problems Capitalism was thriving but had had very little government intervention (laissezfaire economics) and essentially collapses in on itself The driving principle behind laissez-faire, a French term that translates as "leave alone" (literally, "let you do"), is that the less the government is involved in the economy, the
better off business will be and by extension, society as a whole. People had over-extended credit and heavy debt Stock Market A large amount of people were
investing heavily in the stock market (the next big thing!) Some were even investing their life saving in the market! The market ran on essentially borrowed money Stock Market (contd)
Buying stocks on Marginwhen you borrow money from your stock broker to purchase stocks then pay them back later Share could be bought from a stock broker for 10 % of their actual price For example, $8, 000 work of stock for $800
You will eventually get rich!!! The Toronto Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange Collapse!
October 24, 1929, the Winnipeg Grain Exchange tumbled. This was followed by a collapse of the New York Stock Exchange. People had been buying stocks on borrowed money, and when the markets crashed people couldnt repay their debts.
Other Economic Problems Over Production and UnderConsumption: factories were manufacturing more products then were being purchased The Prairies were the Bread Basketprovided 40% of the
worlds grain But. No longer a big demand, some European countries growing their own grain!!! Reality Check!
EVEN THOUGH THERE WAS THE BOOMING 20S IN ACTUAL REALITY ONLY 40 % OF PEOPLE COULD AFFORD LUXURIES!!! Federal Department of Labour Report most were making $1, 000 a year when $1, 200 to $1,500 was needed!!!
October 24, 1929 The Stock Market Crashes!!! Reality Sets In The Depression Hits Home! The Prairie provinces suffered
the most. As stated earlier, demand for wheat was going down which inevitably put a strain on the prairie economy. To make matters worse, a seven year drought follows Almost NO rain fell during that time
On the Prairies More than 200,000 people were forced to leave their farms. Saskatchewan per capita income fell 71% in just three years! Two-thirds of the population were forced to go on some form of public assistance
In Canada Overall, income in Canada fell almost 50%! 0f 10 million Canadians, 2 million were on relief handouts The jobless rate went from 4 percent to a 27 percent meaning one in
four Canadians were unemployed. A New Prime Minister The then current P M, Mackenzie King, refused to provide any relief money of any sort
(famously declares that he wouldnt give a five-cent piece to anyone) Terminology Protestant Work Ethic (definition): It is a person's duty
is to achieve success through hard work Therefore if you are not successful, it is your fault! Bonfire Bennett R. B. Bennett campaigns
against King and wins, becomes Canadas new PM Believes that the answer lies in the capitalist system Work Camps
One of the solutions being proposed was using forced labour work camps to provide economic assistance to transients (many times against their will) These camps were run by the Ministry of Defense Used to keep an eye on would be
communists? Creation of the CCF In August 1932, delegates from farmers parties and unions met together in Calgary to create a new political party: the
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) Contrary to The Communists, the party believed in democratic socialism
Last Minute Change? Similar to U.S. President Roosevelts New Deal Bennett proposes a similar radical restructuring of society as follows (Bennett New Deal): Unemployment insurance Minimum wages (and limits on work hours) More farm credit Funding for research of new agricultural
practices A revamped Wheat Board to control grain prices Most of these changes were then struck down because they were unconstitutional. They interfered with provincial jurisdiction. King Once Again in
Power Bennett loses to King in the 1935 election; King once again is PM Socialism in the Prairies
Communism During the Winnipeg General Strike, the govt introduced Section 98 of the criminal code. The section stated that "Any person who acts or professes to act as an officer of any such unlawful association, and who shall sell, speak, write or publish anything as the representative or professed representative of any such
unlawful association, or become and continues to be a member thereof...shall be guilty of an offense... Could land you up to 20 years in prison. It was this section of the Criminal Code that would be used to suppress the spread of communism in Canada. Communism During the rise of labour movements and the
CCF, Bennett and the Conservatives were deeply suspicious of a communist uprising. Bennett was nicknamed Iron Heel Bennett. In Toronto, Brigadier General Dennis Draper, began breaking up outdoor meetings with a squad of policemen. They earned the name Drapers Cossacks. These free-speech fights became a weekly event
in Toronto. From 1919 to 1936 nearly 20,000 people were deported because of their alleged association with an illegal organization. Dennis Draper
Both the communist and socialist parties in Canada resisted seeking political office through the electoral system. Both agreed that social democratic parties, like the CCF, were the greatest enemies to working people because of their adherence to the system.
CCF While the communists refused to work within the system, the votes of working people were split between the CCF of Tommy Douglas and Mackenzies Liberals. Douglas recently voted
The Greatest Canadian Regina Manifesto In 1933, the CCF party adopted a platform called The Regina Manifesto The primary purpose of the Manifesto was to replace the capitalist system with a planned
socialist economy. It also called for publically funded health care. In 1956 the party replaced these policies with the more moderate Keynesian economic model. The CCF party will later join with another party and become the New
Democratic Party (NDP) Legacy of the Depression Mackenzie King (along with MacDonald, Laurier and Borden) is generally regarded as one of Canadas most influential PMs. He was PM for 21 years including during
WWII One of only two world leaders that was a head of state of a major power both at the beginning and the end of the war. The other was Stalin. Despite this he is still usually best remembered for his use of mediums and
superstitious nature. Legacy of the Depression The Depression changed the way most Canadians viewed the role of govt Bennett and King, like most economists believed the govt should maintain
balanced budgets and advocate trade agreements and the private sector would eventually recover. Reform movements grew in response (ex. CCF) Push to use the state to force recovery Both Bennett and especially King eventually adopted this approach late in their terms.
Legacy of the Depression Canadians began to be fearful of extremist political movements but also the role of govt in limiting these movements. Not until the Bill of Rights and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms would Canadas
freedom of speech laws be codified. So how did the Great Depression end anyway? ONE
MAN An Overview Government begins to play a more active role in society (move from Laissez-faire to social welfare (Keynesian)) Emergence of new political parties (CCF) broaden the Canadian political spectrum.
Women get the vote and play a more active role in society. Canada becomes more independent (Statute of Westminster). New political ideologies threaten the status quo.
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