Outline

Outline

Outline Review realism and institutionalism Intro to feminist/disenfranchised theories of IR Feminist/disenfranchised theories in a nutshell Facts that need explaining Six tenets of feminist/disenfranchised theories of IR Three variants of feminist theory Gender and race in the military Realism Institutionalism Focus what is being explained? Conflict Cooperation Actors who are considered the main actors to watch? States are

primary and act as unitary rational actors Multiple actors (states, MNCs, NGOs); not always unitary or rational Goals what are the goals of the main actors? Survival, security, and hence, power Econ & social goals as well as security Military force is Means what means do actors use to achieve their usable, effective, and fungible goals?

Asymmetry in interdependence; issue-specific power Organizing Principles how is the international system organized? Anarchy and self-help Anarchy mitigated by norms, rules, & institutions Dynamics what does the process of international relations look like? Acquisition and balancing of power Alternation of

cooperation & conflict Disenfranchised Examples of race and religion in international relations Wars Race/Ethnicity: European contacts; China (Uighurs); Rwanda (Hutu/Tutsi); Mali (Tuaregs) Religion: Crusades; Yemen (Huthi-Shia rebels); Iraq - Sunni/Shia/ Kurds; India/Pakistan; Burma (Rohingya) Economics Human Rights patterns in their protection Environmental issues dominated by Northern concerns Examples of gender in international relations Men are 95% of the worlds primary policy-makers (women as Commander in Chief or SecDef?) See supporting statistics HERE. A political science paper on women as defense ministers is HERE. Women do most of worlds work, grow most of worlds food but receive little of its

income and own little of its property. UN statistics are HERE. Women disproportionately illiterate, impoverished, underrepresented, killed at birth -most of these are supported HERE, along with other statistics, but on female infanticide, see HERE. Rape as common strategy of war and outside of war. See considerable evidence HERE. Not all sex-specific outcomes favor men -- this is my own claim, based on a summary of the evidence, mainly learned from a colleague and former PhD student, Charli Carpenter. See her book HERE. Regardless of who benefits, gender matters for the consequences one receives in the world! My own claim. Disenfranchised version: If race and religion dont matter, then why: Did Crusades / colonialism / slavery / internment of Japanese but not Germans / 9-11 / Holocaust happen? How explain Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Iraq, etc? Why does US deal with treaties with Native Americans differently than with other countries? Although African Americans have fought in the US military in every war since the Revolution, why did integration in the US military not occur until 1948? Intro to Disenfranchised Theories of IR Our identities matter BUT our identities are socially

constructed "Much of contemporary feminism is also committed to emancipatory goals {Tickner, 1997} Social theories influence social processes they attempt to describe and explain Knowledge cannot be divorced from its political consequences {Tickner, 1997} Conflict over what is studied in IR AND how we study it Explain behavior of states run by men and international system that results from interactions of states run by men" Disenfranchised Theories in a Nutshell Structural inequality leads to individual insecurity The pattern: Absence of women from practice of IR Absence of women from scholarship of IR Assume states provide for security of their citizens but simply not true for many women Harm to women is ubiquitous across states but generally

unaddressed Realism Focus what is being explained? Actors who are considered the main actors to watch? Goals what are the goals of the main actors? Means what means do actors use to achieve their goals? Organizing Principles how is the international system organized? Dynamics what does the process of international relations look like? Institutionalism Disenfranchised Gender/racial conflicts rather than interstate

conflict Realism Institutionalism Disenfranchised Focus what is being explained? Gender/racial conflicts rather than interstate conflict Actors who are considered the main actors to watch? Gender, racial identity matters as much as national identity Goals what are the goals of the main actors?

Means what means do actors use to achieve their goals? Organizing Principles how is the international system organized? Dynamics what does the process of international relations look like? Realism Institutionalism Disenfranchised Focus what is being explained? Gender/racial conflicts rather than interstate conflict Actors who are considered the main actors

to watch? Gender, racial identity matters as much as national identity Goals what are the goals of the main actors? Individual security and well-being (but state provides only for some) Means what means do actors use to achieve their goals? Organizing Principles how is the international system organized? Dynamics what does the process of international relations look like? Realism

Institutionalism Disenfranchised Focus what is being explained? Gender/racial conflicts rather than interstate conflict Actors who are considered the main actors to watch? Gender, racial identity matters as much as national identity Goals what are the goals of the main actors? Individual security and well-being (but state provides only for some)

Means what means do actors use to achieve their goals? Gender/racial identities in service of state; marginalized power in cooperation (vs. force) Organizing Principles how is the international system organized? Dynamics what does the process of international relations look like? Realism Institutionalism Disenfranchised Focus what is being explained?

Gender/racial conflicts rather than interstate conflict Actors who are considered the main actors to watch? Gender, racial identity matters as much as national identity Goals what are the goals of the main actors? Individual security and well-being (but state provides only for some) Means what means do actors use to achieve their goals? Gender/racial identities in

service of state; marginalized power in cooperation (vs. force) Organizing Principles how is the international system organized? Patriarchy, gendered and racial hierarchical structures Dynamics what does the process of international relations look like? Realism Institutionalism Disenfranchised Focus what is being explained?

Gender/racial conflicts rather than interstate conflict Actors who are considered the main actors to watch? Gender, racial identity matters as much as national identity Goals what are the goals of the main actors? Individual security and well-being (but state provides only for some) Means what means do actors use to achieve their goals? Gender/racial identities in service of state;

marginalized power in cooperation (vs. force) Organizing Principles how is the international system organized? Patriarchy, gendered and racial hierarchical structures Dynamics what does the process of international relations look like? Reconstruction & maintenance of gendered and racial hierarchies i>clicker survey What is the main thing Disenfranchised Theory seek to explain? A. Why peace treaties take so long to negotiate B. Why states seek to seize the territories of other states C. Why states have never used military power to oppress other

states D. What explains why so much conflict occurs between states based on race, religion, and ethnicity and within states based on race, religion, ethnicity, and gender Three variants of feminist theory Feminist empiricism Facts about women neglected Same intellectual project, different facts Feminist standpoint Perspectives of women neglected and marginalized Same intellectual project, different theories Feminist postmodernism Deep notions of inquiry and truth are gendered Different intellectual project Gender in the military Who gets conscripted into militaries? Exclusion of women counter to realist expectations Hypermasculinization of troops Power over vs. power with Women play a role in making modern military work Srebenica and the role of gender the power of taken for

granted gender norms Feminist theories summarized Three linked perspectives/approaches Perhaps best seen as different levels in a single feminist critique of existing theories of IR Confront us with problematic nature of international relations itself, the study of international relations, and the methodology of the study of international relations and other social sciences QUIZ Instructions PREFERRED: Use your I>clicker OR ONLY if you do not have an I>clicker, please Get out a piece of paper Put your name on paper Write down Question number and your answer QUIZ 10 questions 1 minute per question Quiz ends at 10:10am

If you have any concerns that your I>clicker is not working, get out a piece of paper and: Write your name on the top Write Question # and answer for all 10 questions Hand in at end of quiz

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