INTEGRATED SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES PREVENTING ACCIDENTS DUE TO DRIVER FATIGUE By Carl Tenenbaum David Haynes Philip Pham Rachel Wakim History of Driver Safety
1930s- Seat Belt first introduced 1949- Safety Cage and Padded Dashboard 1966- National Transportation Safety Board 1978- Childs Booster Seat 1979- Car Crash Testing 1981- Airbag Introduced 1984- NY Enforced Seat Belt Use 2004- Rollover Risk Test Causes of Car Accidents 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Distracted Drivers (12% was Driver Fatigue) Driver Fatigue Drunk Driving Speeding Aggressive Driving Weather * According to Sixwise.com
Driver Fatigue Results The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Yearly Statistics 100,000 police-reported crashes 1,550 deaths 71,000 injuries $12.5 billion in monetary losses. It is difficult to attribute crashes to sleepiness
SENSOR TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS To be attractive, a vehicle sensor system should be: Fairly inexpensive, Accurate, with a quick response time, Integrated with the car design, or at
least plug and play, Noninvasive, Discreet, and non-distracting, Adaptable to different user conditions: i.e., sunglasses, gloves. Head Position Detection Sense changes in Head Position Tilt Gives off a warning if the Head Tilt is facing a downward angle. Does Not detect head backwards or turned. Head Position Down is the Last Stage of Sleep Onset. Usually too late and no warning to Driver.
Detect Head Angle Is Head Tilted? Audio Alarm Reed Switch Device Reed Switch Speaker/
Buzzer Battery Voice Detection Sense changes in Discrete Voice Parameters such as pitch, frequency, latency and amplitude. A complex detection algorithm compares normal voice to sample of potential fatigued voice Can be integrated in GPS or command oriented car systems
Voice Channel Types of Voice Sounds Voiced Nasal Fricative Plosive (Easiest to detect Fatigue)
Behavioral Detection Sense Erratic Driving Behavior Stores Profile of Persons Driving Behavior Compares Profile such as Drivers Steering and Braking Reaction Time Behaviors Detected
Steering Wheel Angle Steadiness of Wheel Lane Departure Proximity Braking Reaction Acceleration Reaction Steering Angle Sensors Use Mechanical (potentiometers) or
Optical (contact-free) technologies to collect data or apply correction Mount on steering shafts Cover up to 1080o (3x steering wheel rotations) Angle resolution of 0.1o Lane Departure Warning Use video, laser, and infrared to monitor the lane markings Activate Vehicle Stability Control (Infiniti), Electric Power Steering (Lexus), etc. to maintain lane position
Driving Behavior (Steering Angle) Driving Behavior (Gas Pedal) Driving Behavior (Center Lane Distance) Current Behavioral Sensors Mercedes E-Class, Volvo, Lexus,
Nissan, Infiniti, Volkswagen Aftermarket- 3Q(2011) AudioVox ($600) *Daimler Chrysler Website Optical Detection A camera or system of cameras monitor the drivers facial features for signs of drowsiness. Computer algorithms analyze blink rate and duration. Infrared LEDs are used to enhance pupil detection. Yawning and sudden head nods are also detected.
Head/eye Camera Measure head tilting/eye closing/yawning as signs of fatigue or drowsiness. Non-invasive, no need for user interface. Can be thwarted by sunglasses or hats. Driver movement may confuse the camera. 1/5 people do not show eye closure as a warning sign. [US Dept. of Transportation]
Pupil Detection on Grayscale Image Facial Feature Detection Possible Camera Locations Current Optical Systems Nap Alarm DD850 (LS888) Driver Fatigue Monitor
Biometric Detection EKG and EEG Blood pressure Skin conductivity (GSR Galvanic Skin Response) Skin temperature Breathing rate
Grip force All shown with correlation to relative drowsiness Electrocardiogram (EKG) Get information about users heart rhythm from at least two electrical contacts on skin. By removing common mode noise and amplifying the signal, a system can read the users heart rate, the distance between successive R peaks Drowsiness has been shown to be linked to
decreasing heart activity and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) Minimum EKG System As long as there are at least two contact points, sensor should be able to extract and isolate the signal Can put these on wheel, seat, or both Wheel sensor
Use sensors on steering wheel to measure skin temperature and conductivity, pulse, etc. Estimate heart rate variability can detect drowsiness. Combines many different metrics to get an overall assessment of the users state. Requires use of both hands, without gloves.
Seat sensor Two pieces of conductive fabric on the drivers seat (backrest) can take an ECG - measurement. Or on bottom of seat, with wheel as ground (only needs one hand) Needs impedance compensation for the drivers shirt/coat, etc.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) Use multiple electrodes on scalp to read brain waves Can very accurately determine sleep/drowsiness stage this way by measuring amplitude/frequency variation of signal BUT, very invasive
Other Possible Sensor Locations Blood pressure finger cuff on front seat EKG contacts on left or right armrests EKG sensors on shifter Etc. Or any combination of these. Theory: the more bio-signs, the better!
Wireless wrist monitor Wristwatch capable of detecting heart rate, skin temperature and conductance. Example: Exmovere Empath Watch: Transmits via Bluetooth to phone which can signal out; easily extended to cars, many of which already are Bluetooth compatible. Current design is 3.3 long, 1.7 wide, and 1.3 tall.
Can be bulky, and may not be appealing enough; currently being remodeled [http://www.exmovere.com/healthcare.html] Current Biometric Detection Systems Currently, there are no systems of these types in commercial use They all display a high level of accuracy,
but their weak point is their invasiveness and unattractiveness With future work, some of these can be integrated in a behind-the-scenes manner during manufacturing DECISION MAKING AND CAR ALERTS Fuzzy Logic Detection More Uncorrelated Sensors Detecting Driver Fatigue Will Increase Detection 1.
2. Corrective and Prevention Actions Elevated Alarms a) Provide Visual Alarm (lights, signs, etc.) b) Provide Audio Alarm (warning tone or voice) c) Recommend short nap (prevent car to start; studies show 15-minute nap increases alertness to 4-5 hours more) Mechanical and Electronic Stimulations a) Counteract to the effects (steering wheel turn, lane drifting, speed change, etc.) b) Apply brake to slow down to safety c) Dispatch for help if no response
Corrective Flowchart Actions CURRENT MARKET AND TRENDS Current Driver Fatigue Products Non- Overall Products Price
Accurate Invasive Effective Score Company Detection Type Driver Nap Zapper 25 50%
3 5 No Nap Motion 3 Leisure Nap Alarm (LS888) Auto
Fatigue Monitor Exmovere Empath Undeveloped Market. US Consumer Car GPS Market is $5.1 Billion Market in 2010. Limitations and Future Work Limitations Probability of Detection
Lack of Effective and Timely Alerts Integration of Sensors Future Work Increase Probability of Detection Use of Multiple Sensors to Increase Probability Develop Effective and Timely Alerts References
 The 6 Most Common Causes of Automobile Crashes(2010). Retrieved February 9th 2011, from http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/05/07/20/the_6_most_common_causes_of_automobile_crashes. htm
 K. Strohl, J. Blatt, F. Council, K. Georges, J. Kiley, R. Kurrus, A. McCartt, S. Merritt, R.N, A. Pack, S. Rogus, T. Roth, J. Stutts, P. Waller, and D. Willis, Drowsy Driving and Automobile Crashes (2010), Retrieved February 21st 2011, from http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/drowsy_driving1/drowsy.html#NCSDR/NHTSA  What causes Fatigue (2010), Retrieved February 21 st 2011, from http://unsafetrucks.org/driver_fatigue.htm  H. Greeley, E. Friets,, J. Wilson, S. Raghavan and J. Berg, Detecting Fatigue From Voice Using Speech Recognition, 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology  D. Hu, G. Gong, C. Han, Z. Mu, and X. Zhao, Modeling research on Driver Fatigue, 2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010) L. Bergasa, J. Nuevo, M. Sotelo, R. Barea, and M. Lopez, Real-Time System for Monitoring Driver Vigilance, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 7, no. 1, March 2006  Z. Zhu, Q. Ji, K. Fujimura, and K. Lee, Combining Kalman Filtering and Mean Shift for Real Time Eye Tracking Under Active IR Illumination, International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Quebec, Canada, 2002
 US Department of Transportation, An Evaluation of Emerging Driver Fatigue Detection Measures and Technologies, June 2009  Haisong Gu, Qiang Ji, and Zhiwei Zhu, Active Facial Tracking for Fatigue Detection IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, Orlando, Florida, 2002. Y. Jie, Y. DaQuan, W. WeiNa, X. XiaoXia, and W. Hui, Real-Time Detecting System of the Drivers Fatigue, 2006 L. Bergasa, J. Nuevo, M. Sotelo, R. Barea, and M. Lopez, Real-Time System for Monitoring Driver Vigilance, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 7, no. 1, March, 2006 References (Continued)
 S. Deshmukh, D. Radake, K. Hande , Driver Fatigue Detection Using Sensor Network, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, NCICT Conference Special Issue, pp 89-92, February 2011  Y. Tanida, H. Hagiwara, Simple Estimation of the Falling Asleep Period using the Lorenz Plot for Heart Rate Interval, JSMBE vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 156-162, Nov. 2005.
 S. Kar, M. Bhagat, and A. Routray, EEG signal analysis for the assessment and quantification of drivers fatigue, June 2010  L. Servera, M. Fernandez-Chimeno, and M. Gonzlez, Study of Sleep Stages By Controlled Inducement and Measurement of Drowsiness Related Biomedical Signals, 4th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, April 2009 P. Kithil, R. Jones, and J. MacCuish, Development of Driver Alertness Detection System Using Overhead Capacitive Sensor Array, International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Aspen, CO, 2001. X. Yu, Real-time Nonintrusive Detection of Driver Drowsiness, May 2009  G. Yang, Y. Lin, and P. Bhattacharya , "A driver fatigue recognition model using fusion of multiple features" Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2005 IEEE International Conference on , vol.2, no., pp. 1777- 1784 Vol. 2, 10-12 Oct. 2005 The John Hopkins university Applied Physics Laboratory Technologies: Drowsy Driver Detection System http://www.jhuapl.edu/ott/technologies/featuredtech/DDDS/ T. Matsuda and M.Makikawa, ECG Monitoring of a Car Driver Using Capacitively-Coupled Electrodes, 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference ,Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada, August 2008 Y. Lin, H. Leng, G. Yang, and H. Cai, An intelligent noninvasive sensor for driver pulse wave measurement, IEEE Sensors J., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 790799, May 2007.  M. Bundele, and R. Banerjee, Design of Early Fatigue Detection Elements of a Wearable Computing System for the Prevention of Road Accidents, IEEE,International Society of Automation, Vol 1 , pp 136-139, 2010 References (Continued) I. Jeong, S. Jun, D. Lee and H. Yoon, Development of Bio Signal Measurement System for Vehicles, 2007 International Conference on Convergence Information Technology Exmovere Holdings Inc, The New Biotechnological Frontier: The Empath Watch. Feb. 2011 http://www.exmovere.com/pdf/Exmovere_Wearable_Sensor_Research.pdf
 Frost & Sullivans, North American GPS Equipment Markets, 2010 (Report A601-22)
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