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Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights Module C: Chapter 3 Heredity Section 1: Mendel and His Peas Section 2: Traits and Inheritance Section 3: Meiosis End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Section 1 Mendel and His Peas Bellringer You have probably noticed that different people have different characteristics, such as eye color, hair color, or whether or not their earl lobes attach directly to their head or hang down loosely. These characteristics are called traits. The traits listed above are physical but animals have behavioral traits as well. Examples include the way cats lick themselves to clean their fur, or the way many birds fly south for the winter. Where do you think people and

animals get these different traits? How do you think they are passed from one generation to the next? Write your answers in your science journal. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 1 Mendel and His Peas Objectives Explain the relationship between traits and heredity. Describe the experiments of Gregor Mendel. Explain the difference between dominant and recessive traits.

End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 1 Mendel and His Peas Who Was Gregor Mendel? Scientific Monk Gregor Mendel was born in 1822 in Heinzendorf, Austria. When he was 21 years old, Mendel entered a monastery. The monks taught science and performed many scientific experiments.

End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 1 Mendel and His Peas Unraveling the Mystery Self-Pollinating Peas From working with plants, Mendel knew that the patterns of inheritance were not always clear. Mendel decided to do research with peas that pollinate themselves. Characteristics Mendel studied only one pea

characteristic at a time. A characteristic is a feature that has different forms in a population. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 1 Mendel and His Peas Unraveling the Mystery, continued Mix and Match Mendel was careful to use plants that were true breeding for each of the traits he was studying. By doing so, he would know what to expect if his plants

were to self-pollinate. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 1 Mendel and His Peas Mendels First Experiment Crossing Pea Plants In his first experiments, Mendel crossed pea plants to study seven different characteristics. Discovery of Dominant and Recessive Traits Mendel got similar results for each cross. One trait was always

present in the first generation, and the other trait seemed to disappear. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 1 Mendel and His Peas Mendels Second Experiment Mendels Method Mendel allowed the first-generation plants to self-pollinate. Ratios in Mendels Experiment The recessive trait did

not show up as often as the dominant trait. Mendel decided to figure out the ratio of dominant traits to recessive traits. Gregor MendelGone But Not Forgotten Mendel realized that his results could be explained only if each plant had two sets of instructions for each characteristic. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2 Traits and Inheritance Bellringer If you flip a coin, what are the chances that it will land on

heads? tails? Suppose that you flipped the coin and got heads. What are the chances that you will get heads again? What are the chances you will get heads five times in a row? 10 times? 50 times? Record your answers in your science journal. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2 Traits and Inheritance Objectives

Explain how genes and alleles are related to genotype and phenotype. Use the information in a Punnett square. Explain how probability can be used to predict possible genotypes in offspring. Describe three exceptions to Mendels observations. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2 Traits and Inheritance A Great Idea

Phenotype An organisms appearance is known as its phenotype. Genotype Both inherited alleles together form an organisms genotype. Punnett Squares A Punnett square is used to organize all the possible combinations of offspring from particular parents. Punnett squares can be used to verify Mendels findings. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2

Punnett Squares Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2 Traits and Inheritance What Are the Chances? Probability The mathematical chance that something will happen is known as probability. Calculating Probability To find the probability that you will toss two heads in a row, multiply the probability of tossing the first head (1/2) by the probability of tossing the

second head (1/2). End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2 Traits and Inheritance What Are the Chances?, continued Genotype Probability To have white flowers, a pea plant must receive a p allele from each parent. Each offspring of a Pp Pp cross has a 50% chance of receiving either allele from either parent. So, the probability of inheriting two p

alleles is 1/2 1/2, which equals 1/4,or 25%. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2 Traits and Inheritance More About Traits Incomplete Dominance Researchers have found that sometimes one trait is not completely dominant over another. One Gene, Many Traits Sometimes one gene influences

more than one trait. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 2 Traits and Inheritance More About Traits, continued Many Genes, One Trait Some traits, such as the color of your skin, hair, and eyes, are the result of several genes acting together. The Importance of Environment Your environment

influences how you grow. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 3 Meiosis Bellringer Write a sentence to describe each of the following terms: heredity, genotype, and phenotype. Note how genotype and phenotype are related, and how they are different. Is

heredity necessarily a factor in both genotype and phenotype? Why or why not? Record your answers in your science journal. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 3 Meiosis Objectives Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis. Describe how chromosomes determine sex.

Explain why sex-linked disorders occur in one sex more often than in the other. Interpret a pedigree. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 3 Meiosis Asexual Reproduction Making More Prokaryotic Cells In asexual reproduction,

only one parent cell is needed. The structures inside the cell are copied, and then the parent cell divides, making two exact copies. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 3 Meiosis Sexual Reproduction Meiosis Sex cells are made during meiosis. Meiosis is a

copying process that produces cells with half the usual number of chromosomes. Genes and Chromosomes Genes are located on chromosomes. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 3 Meiosis The Steps of Meiosis

Follow the Steps During meiosis, chromosomes are copied once, and then the nucleus divides twice. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 3 Meiosis Meiosis and Mendel Sex Chromosomes Sex chromosomes carry genes that determine sex.

Sex-Linked Disorders The genes for certain disorders, such as colorblindness, are carried on the X chromosome. These disorders are called sex-linked disorders. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Section 3 Meiosis Meiosis and Mendel, continued Genetic Counselor If people are worried that they might

pass a disease to their children, they may consult a genetic counselor. Selective Breeding In selective breeding, organisms with desirable characteristics are mated. End of Slide Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 5 The Cell in Action Concept Map

Use the following terms to complete the concept map on the next slide: alleles, parents, heredity, phenotype, genes, offspring, genotype, characteristics, dominant. Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 5 Concept Map Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 5

Concept Map Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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