PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Looking Out, Looking In,
PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Looking Out, Looking In, Tenth Edition Chapter 5: Language: Barrier and Bridge Presentation prepared by Dr. Michael Pearson, Gretchen Gill, and Tim Scanlon of West Chester University Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license. For permission to use material from this text, contact us by: Phone: 1-800-730-2214 Fax: 1-800-730-2215 Web: www.thomsonrights.com Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc.
CHAPTER 5 Language: Barrier and Bridge Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Language: Barrier and Bridge Language is Symbolic Understandings and Misunderstandings
The Impact of Language The Language of Responsibility Gender and Languages Language and Culture Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Language is Symbolic Words are arbitrary symbols that dont have any meaning in themselves. Words can be interpreted in many different
ways; this is the basis for many misunderstandings . Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Understandings and Misunderstandings Understanding Words: Semantic Rules Semantic rules - govern the meaning of the symbols; they reflect the ways in which users of a language make sense of a particular linguistic symbol Semantic misunderstandings arise when people use
words as if they had different meanings. Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Understandings and Misunderstandings Understanding Words: Semantic Rules Equivocal language statements that have more than one commonly accepted definition Relative words - gain their meaning by comparison Static Evaluation - the tendency to view people
or relationships as unchanging Abstract language language that is vague in nature Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Understandings and Misunderstandings Understanding Words: Semantic Rules Abstraction Stereotyping high level abstractions that lead to blanket statements; Men are no good Skateboarders are delinquents
Abstraction ladder - shows how to describe the same phenomenon at various levels of abstraction Behavioral language low-level abstractions; refers to specific things that you or the other person says or does Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Understandings and Misunderstandings Understanding Words: Semantic Rules Behavioral Description Who is involved?
In what circumstances does the behavior occur? What behaviors are involved? Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Understandings and Misunderstandings Understanding Structure: Syntactic Rules Syntactic Rules - govern the grammar of language Understanding Context:
Pragmatic Rules Pragmatic rules - govern the interpretation of the symbols in a given context Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Impact Of Language Naming and Identity Different names are more than just identification; they shape the way others think of us, the way we view ourselves, and the way we act. Affiliation, Attraction, and Interest
Convergence - process of adapting ones speech style to match that of others Divergence - process of emphasizing differences from others Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Impact Of Language Power Powerless Speech Mannerisms - statements that can make a person appear less authoritative or socially attractive
Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Impact Of Language Disruptive Language Fact-Opinion Confusion In everyday conversation, we often present our opinions as if they were facts, and in doing so we invite arguments Fact-Inference Confusion Confusion of factual and inferential statements conclusions drawn from an interpretation of evidence; use perception checking instead
Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Impact Of Language Disruptive Language Emotive Language - seems to describe something, but really announces the speakers attitude To avoid arguments involving emotive words, describe things or concepts using neutral terms Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc.
The Language of Responsibility IT statements - replace the personal pronoun I with the less immediate word it. I language - clearly identifies the speaker as the source of the message BUT language - strategy for wrapping the speakers real but unpleasant message between more palatable ideas Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc.
The Language of Responsibility Questions Some questions can be sincere requests for information; other times they are used to avoid declarations I and You Language I language a way of accepting responsibility for a message You language - expresses a judgment of another person Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc.
The Language of Responsibility Advantages of I Language Defense Reduction Honesty Completeness Problems with I Language I get too angry to use I language. Even with I language, the other person gets defensive. I language sounds artificial.
Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. The Language of Responsibility We Language We statements - imply that the issue is the concern and responsibility of both the speaker and receiver of a message Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc.
Gender And Language Content On average, men and women discuss a surprisingly different range of topics. Reasons for Communicating Men and women often use language in different ways for different purposes. Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Gender And Language
Conversational Style Women and men behave differently in conversations. Nongender Variables Sex Role - the social orientation that governs behavior, rather than the biological gender Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Language And Culture Verbal Communication Styles Low-context cultures generally value using
language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly and logically High-context cultures - value using language as a way to maintain social harmony Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc. Language And Culture Language and Worldview Linguistic Determinism - the worldview of a culture is unavoidably shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - theory in which language is determined by a cultures perceived reality Linguistic Relativism - language exerts a strong influence on perceptions Copyright 2002 Thomson Learning, Inc.
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