Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness

Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness

Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness Three major groups in Canadathe native peoples, the French, and the Englishhave melded into a diverse and economically strong nation. Canadian fur trapper. NEXT Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness SECTION 1

History and Government of Canada SECTION 2 Economy and Culture of Canada SECTION 3 Subregions of Canada Unit Atlas: Physical Unit Atlas: Political NEXT Section 1

History and Government of Canada French and British settlement greatly influenced Canadas political development. Canadas size and climate affected economic growth and population distribution. NEXT SECTION 1 History and Government of Canada The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry Early Peoples After Ice Age, migrants cross Arctic land bridge

from Asia - ancestors of Arctic Inuit (Eskimos); North American Indians to south Vikings found Vinland (Newfoundland) about A.D. 1000; later abandon Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry Colonization by France and Britain French explorers claim much of Canada in 1500 1600s as New France

British settlers colonize the Atlantic Coast Coastal fisheries and inland fur trade important to both countries Britain wins French and Indian War (17541763); French settlers stay NEXT SECTION 1 Steps Toward Unity Establishing the Dominion of Canada In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provinces - Upper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant - Lower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking,

Roman Catholic Ruperts Land a northern area owned by fur-trading company Immigrants arrive, cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto - railways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued Steps Toward Unity Establishing the Dominion of Canada Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britains 1867 North

America Act - creates Dominion of Canada as a loose confederation (political union) - Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick - self-governed part of British Empire Expansion includes: - Ruperts Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island - later: Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan - Newfoundland in 1949 Map NEXT SECTION 1

Continental Expansion and Development From the Atlantic to the Pacific In 1885 a transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to Vancouver European immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunters - copper, zinc, silver also found; grow towns, railroads Image Urban and Industrial Growth Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturing - within 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, transportation Canada becomes major economic power in 20th century NEXT

SECTION 1 Governing Canada The Parliamentary System In 1931 Canada becomes independent, British monarch is symbolic head Parliamentary government: - parliamentlegislature combining legislative and executive functions - consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons - prime minister, head of government, is majority party leader All ten provinces have own legislature and premier (prime minister) - federal government administers the territories

NEXT Section 2 Economy and Culture of Canada Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the worlds most developed economies. Canadians are a diverse people. NEXT SECTION 2 Economy and Culture of Canada

An Increasingly Diverse Economy The Early Fur Trade Beginning in 1500s Native Americans, now known as the First Nations: - begin trade with European fishermen along Atlantic coast French and English trappers and traders expand westward VoyageursFrench-Canadian boatmen transport pelts to trading posts Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued An

Increasingly Diverse Economy Canadas Primary Industries Farming, logging, mining, fishing: 10% of gross domestic product - Canada is the worlds leading exporter of forest products Mining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exported Fishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported Map Chart Continued . . . NEXT

SECTION 2 continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy The Manufacturing Sector 15% of Canadians work in manufacturing, create 1/5 of GDP - make cars, steel, appliances, equipment (high-tech, mining) - centered in heartland, from Quebec City, Quebec, to Windsor, Ontario Continued . . . NEXT SECTION

2 continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy Service Industries Drive the Economy Most Canadians work in service industries, which create 60% of GDP - finance, utilities, trade, transportation, communication, insurance - lands natural beauty makes tourism the fastest growing service Heavy trade with U.S.: same language, open border (worlds longest) - 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with U.S., Mexico - 85% of Canadian exports go to U.S. - 75% of Canadas imports come from U.S.

Image NEXT SECTION 2 A Land of Many Cultures Languages and Religions Mixing of French and native peoples created mtis culture Bilingual: English is most common, except in French-speaking Quebec English Protestants and French Catholics dominate, but often clash - increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groups

Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued A Land of Many Cultures Canadas Population Densest in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands Environment keeps 80% of people on 10% of land (near U.S. border) Urbanization: in 1900 33% of people lived in cities, today its 80% Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas

- 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec - many native peoples live on reservespublic land set aside for them - most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north - many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast Image NEXT SECTION 2 Life in Canada Today Employment and Education Relatively high standard of living, well-educated population

Labor force is 55% men, 45% women - 75% in service industries, 15% in manufacturing Oldest university, Laval, established in Quebec by French English universities founded in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick in 1780s Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued Life in Canada Today Sports and Recreation

Popular sports: skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting - Canada has own football league; other pro teams play in U.S. leagues - native peoples developed lacrosse, European settlers developed hockey Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede Image Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued Life

in Canada Today The Arts Earliest literature from oral traditions of First Nations peoples Later writings from settlers, missionaries, explorers Early visual arts seen in Inuit carving, West Coast totem poles Early 1900s painting: unique style of Torontos Group of Seven Shakespeare honored at Ontarios world-famous Stratford Festival Image NEXT Section 3

Subregions of Canada Canada is divided into four subregions: the Atlantic, Core, and Prairie Provinces, and the Pacific Province and the Territories. Each subregion possesses unique natural resources, landforms, economic activities, and cultural life. NEXT SECTION 3 Subregions of Canada The Atlantic Provinces Harsh Lands and Small Populations

Eastern Canadas Atlantic Provinces: - Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland Only 8% of Canadas population, due to rugged terrain, harsh weather Most people live in coastal cities such as: - Halifax, Nova Scotia - St. John, New Brunswick 85% of Nova Scotia is rocky hills, poor soil 90% of New Brunswick is forested Newfoundland has severe storms Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued The Atlantic Provinces

Economic Activities New Brunswicks largest industry: logging (lumber, wood pulp, paper) Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters supply seafood for export Nova Scotia: logging, fishing, shipbuilding, trade through Halifax Newfoundland: fishing, mining, logging, hydroelectric power - supplies power to Quebec, parts of northeastern U.S. Image NEXT SECTION 3

The Core ProvincesQuebec and Ontario The Heartland of Canada Quebec City: French explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in 1608 60% Canadas population live in Core Provinces Ontario and Quebec - Ontario has largest population; Quebec has largest land area Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued The Core ProvincesQuebec and Ontario

Canadas Political and Economic Center Ottawa, Ontario is the national capital Quebec has great political importance in FrenchCanadian life Core: 35% of Canadas crops, 45% of minerals, 70% of manufacturing Toronto the largest city, finance hub; Montreal second largest city NEXT SECTION 3 The Prairie Provinces Canadas Breadbasket Great Plains Prairie Provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta

50% of Canadas agricultural production, 60% of mineral output - Alberta has coal, oil deposits; produces 90% of Canadas natural gas Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued The Prairie Provinces A Cultural Mix Manitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles Saskatchewans population includes Asian

immigrants, mtis Albertas diversity includes Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese NEXT SECTION 3 The Pacific Province and the Territories British Columbia British Columbiawesternmost province, mostly in Rocky Mountains - 1/2 is forests; 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciers Most people live in southwest; major cities are Victoria, Vancouver Economy built on logging, mining, hydroelectric

power - Vancouver is Canadas largest port, has prosperous shipping trade Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued The Pacific Province and the Territories The Territories The three northern territories account for 41% of Canadas land Sparsely populated due to rugged land and severe climate

- Yukon has population of 30,000; mostly wilderness - Northwest Territories has population of 41,000; extends into Arctic - Nunavut was created from Northwest Territories in 1999; home to Inuit Territories economies include mining, fishing, some logging NEXT This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button. Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint If the dialog box does not include this pop-up, continue to step 4

3. In the Print what box, choose the presentation format you want to print: slides, notes, handouts, or outline 4. Click the Print button to print the PowerPoint presentation Print Text Version 1. Click the Print Text button below; a text file will open in Adobe Acrobat 2. On the File menu, select Print 3. Click the Print button to print the entire document, or select the pages you want to print Print Text Print Text CONTINUE

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