PowerPoint Lecture Presentation by J. David Robertson University
PowerPoint Lecture Presentation by J. David Robertson University of Missouri Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Chapter 8 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. When the Elements Were Discovered
8.1 ns2np6 ns2np5 ns2np4 ns2np3 ns2np2
ns2np1 d10 d5 d1 ns2 ns1 Ground State Electron Configurations of the Elements
4f 5f 8.2 Classification of the Elements 8.2 Electron Configurations of Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements Na [Ne]3s1
Na+ [Ne] Ca [Ar]4s2 Ca2+ [Ar] Al [Ne]3s23p1 Al3+ [Ne] Atoms gain electrons
so that anion has a noble-gas outer electron configuration. Atoms lose electrons so that cation has a noble-gas outer electron configuration. H 1s1 H- 1s2 or [He]
F 1s22s22p5 F- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] O 1s22s22p4 O2- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] N 1s22s22p3 N3- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] 8.2
-1 -2 -3 +3 +2 +1
Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements 8.2 Na+: [Ne] Al3+: [Ne] O2-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] F-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]
N3-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] Na+, Al3+, F-, O2-, and N3- are all isoelectronic with Ne What neutral atom is isoelectronic with H- ? H-: 1s2 same electron configuration as He 8.2 Electron Configurations of Cations of Transition Metals When a cation is formed from an atom of a transition metal,
electrons are always removed first from the ns orbital and then from the (n 1)d orbitals. Fe: [Ar]4s23d6 Fe2+: [Ar]4s03d6 or [Ar]3d6 Mn: [Ar]4s23d5
Mn2+: [Ar]4s03d5 or [Ar]3d5 Fe3+: [Ar]4s03d5 or [Ar]3d5 8.2 Effective nuclear charge (Zeff) is the positive charge felt by an electron. Zeff = Z - 0 < < Z ( = shielding constant)
Zeff Z number of inner or core electrons Z Core Zeff Radius Na
General Trend in First Ionization Energies Increasing First Ionization Energy Increasing First Ionization Energy 8.4 Electron affinity is the negative of the energy change that occurs when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state to form an anion. X (g) + e-
X-(g) F (g) + e- X-(g) H = -328 kJ/mol EA = +328 kJ/mol O (g) + e-
O-(g) H = -141 kJ/mol EA = +141 kJ/mol 8.5 8.5 8.5
8.6 Group 1A Elements (ns1, n 2) M+1 + 1e- 2M(s) + 2H2O(l) 4M(s) + O2(g) 2MOH(aq) + H2(g) 2M2O(s) Increasing reactivity
M 8.6 Group 2A Elements (ns2, n 2) M+2 + 2e- Be(s) + 2H2O(l) Mg(s) + 2H2O(g) M(s) + 2H2O(l) No Reaction
Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) M(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) M = Ca, Sr, or Ba Increasing reactivity M 8.6 Group 3A Elements (ns2np1, n 2) 4Al(s) + 3O2(g)
2Al(s) + 6H+(aq) 2Al2O3(s) 2Al3+(aq) + 3H2(g) 8.6 Group 4A Elements (ns2np2, n 2) Sn(s) + 2H+(aq) Sn2+(aq) + H2 (g)
Pb(s) + 2H+(aq) Pb2+(aq) + H2 (g) 8.6 Group 5A Elements (ns2np3, n 2) N2O5(s) + H2O(l) P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l)
2HNO3(aq) 4H3PO4(aq) 8.6 Group 6A Elements (ns2np4, n 2) SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) 8.6
Group 7A Elements (ns2np5, n 2) X2(g) + H2(g) X -1 2HX(g) Increasing reactivity X + 1e-
8.6 Group 8A Elements (ns2np6, n 2) Completely filled ns and np subshells. Highest ionization energy of all elements. No tendency to accept extra electrons. 8.6 Chemistry in Action: Discovery of the Noble Gases Sir William Ramsay
Chemistry in Action: Element from the Sun In 1868, Pierre Janssen detected a new dark line in the solar emission spectrum that did not match known emission lines Mystery element was named Helium In 1895, William Ramsey discovered helium in a mineral of uranium (from alpha decay). H: 656 He: 668
486 588 502 (nm) 434 410 (nm) 447
Properties of Oxides Across a Period basic acidic 8.6
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