New Earth - Old Earth

New Earth - Old Earth

What Does Calculus Have to Do With Christianity? Robert J. Marks II, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Baylor University [email protected] Abstract Isaac Newton - the father of classical physics and co-creator of calculus; Michael Faraday - the founder of electrical engineering; Blaise Pascal - mathematician extraordinaire and inventor of the first computer; George Washington Carver the father of the peanut; Louis Pasteur the father of microbiology, Thomas Bayes the founder of statistical inference, James Clerk Maxwell, the formulator of electromagnetics, and on and on. We know these and other great scientists and mathematicians have made monumental contributions to knowledge. We know what they did but, typically, not who they were nor what motivated their work. These extraordinary researchers, and others, were heavily motivated by a desire to uncover

the beauty and order in a universe they believe was created by God. Some today suggest that serious research and belief in God mix like the components of an off shore oil spill when, in truth, the two efforts can be wonderfully complementary. Indeed, both today and in history, numerous scientists, mathematicians and engineers are motivated in their work by the uncovering of the precise orderliness, underlying simplicity, and inherent beauty of God's creations. Many not only study the creation, but have pursued the identity of the Creator and have found Him in the foundational tenets of Christianity. How does God belong in the research and teaching equations? e.g. What role does Christianity play in teaching calculus? Dr. Kent Gilbreath, Professor of Economics, Stevens Chairholder of Private Enterprise and Entrepreneurship, Baylor University, quoted in Baylor alumni, faculty resisting new direction: President's Vision 2012 sees restored Christian

university by Mark Lisheron, Austin-American Statesman, August 3, 2003 Some Stronger Quotes Christian theism must be rejected by any person with even a shred of respect for reason George H. Smith, Atheist Philosopher [Bible miracles] are very effective with an audience of unsophisticates and children Richard Dawkins. Faith is when you believe something no one in their right mind believes. Archie Bunker Consider, then: What motivates research at the Academy? Seeking Truth? Seeking the definition of Truth?

And/OrSeeking Fame? Seeking Fame? Illustration (a real e-mail)... To: [email protected] From: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Subject: Beller medal Dear Bob: I am attaching a file that gives a short list of my contributions to optical science and education. If you feel that I qualify as a candidate for the Esther Hoffman Beller Medal, I would very much appreciate and be honored by a letter from you on my behalf for this medal. Please note that the letter must be at OSA by Oct. 1. The address is: Optical Society of America Communications Dept. MS 112, 2010 Massachusetts Avenus. [sic], NW Washington, DC 20036-1023 Fax: 202-416-6134

[email protected] I thank you in advance. Attachment Converted: ":Proposed Candidate for the Esther Hoffman Beller Medal.doc" e-mail from an IEEE* Professional Society governing board concerning actions of an Awards Committee I have never known an awards committee where the members grant each other the awards/medals. I don't contest that the committee members are not deserving of an award, but the mere fact of serving on a selection committee should exclude one from receiving the awards being distributed. The Awards Committee was

giving their members awards! *IEEE = The Institute of Electronic & Electrical Engineers is the worlds largest professional society with membership in excess of 350,000. Some nonscientist Christians, when they meet a Christian, will call on to debate evolution. That is definitely the wrong thing to do. If you know what problems scientists have in their livespride, selfish ambition, jealousythat's exactly the kind of thing Jesus Christ said that He came to resolve by His death on the cross. Science is full of people with very strong egos who get into conflict with each other. The gospel is the same for scientists as it is for anyone. Evolution is basically a red herring; if scientists are looking for meaning in their lives, it won't be found in evolution. I have never met a nonChristian who brought up evolution with me.

John Suppe, Member of the U.S. Academy of Sciences, Professor of geology at Princeton The Modesty of the Academician U.S. News & World Report reports a poll of university professors found that 94% of the respondents thought they were better at their jobs than their average What motivates research at the Academy for some? Truth, fame, and/or Seeking

God What motivates research at the Academy? Battle? . Is there not a battle between Science and Religion? U.S. News & World Report 16 Dec 96 p26 The HISTORY OF SCIENCE Says Different Archaeology is forced to tell us that several great

civilizations have arisen and vanished without the benefit of a scientific HISTORY OF SCIENCE the Christian world gave birth in a clear, articulate fashion to the experimental method of science itself. Loren Eiseley, Darwins Century (Garden City, NY, Doubleday, 1958, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1961), p.62.

HISTORY OF SCIENCE Hebrew and Christian belief in a deity who was at once a Creator and Law-giver rendered [the idea of the laws of nature] valid. A.R. Hall, Historian 1. In Science & Math, Researchers see the Beauty of Creation. 2. Some believe in a Creator of this beauty. The Beauty of Creation Motivation?

Premise #1: Some Scientists, Engineers and Mathematicians embrace a belief in God. Motivation for research, in certain cases, stems in part from their curiosity of discovering Gods creation and the awe and remarkable beauty of the relationships they uncover. Science brings man nearer to God Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur (John Hudsion Tiner, Louis Pasteur - Founder of Modern Medicine, Milford, MI: Mott Media, Inc., 1990, p.75.) The more I study nature, the more I stand amazed at the work of the Creator. Into his tiniest creatures, God has placed extraordinary properties ... Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) John Hudsion Tiner, Louis Pasteur - Founder of Modern Medicine,

Milford, MI: Mott Media, Inc., 1990, p.75.) God is going to to reveal to us things He never revealed before if we put our hands in His. George Washington Carver (1865-1943) (who named his laboratory Gods Little Workshop.) Ethel Edwards, Carver of Tuskegee (Cincinnati, Ohio; Ethyl Edwards & James T. Hardwick, 1971) pp.141-42. 1. Gutenberg, Johann 2. Newton, Isaac 3. Luther, Martin 4. Darwin, Charles 5. Shakespeare, William 6. Columbus, Christopher 7. Marx, Karl 8. Einstein, Albert

9. Copernicus, Nicolaus 10. Galileo Galilei 11. Da Vinci, Leonardo 12. Freud, Sigmund 13. Pasteur, Louis 14. Edison, Thomas 15. Jefferson, Thomas 16. Hitler, Adolf 17. Gandhi, Mahatma 18. Locke, John 19. Michelangelo 20. Smith, Adam 21. Washington, George 22. Khan, Genghis 23. Lincoln, Abraham 24. Aquinas, St. Thomas 25. Watt, James 26. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeu

27. Bonaparte, Napolean 28. Bach, Johann Sebastian 29. Ford, Henry 30. Beethoven, Ludwig Von 31. Watson & Crick 32. Descartes, Rene 33. King, Martin Luther Jr. 34. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Biographys Top 100 Persons of the Millennium 35. Lenin, Vladimir 2. Isaac Newton 36. Fleming, Alexander 37. Voltaire The father of classical physics.

38. Bacon, Francis Co-Discoverer 39. Alighieri, ofDante Calculus 40. Wright Brothers 41. Gates, Bill 42. Mendel, Gregor 43. Mao, Zedong 44. Bell, Alexander Graham 45. William the Conqueror 46. Machiavelli, Niccolo 47. Babbage, Charles 48. Wollstonecraft, Mary 49. Gorbachev, Mikhail 50. Sanger, Margaret 51. Jenner, Edward 52. Churchill, Winston

53. Curie, Marie 54. Polo, Marco 55. Magellan, Ferdinand 56. Stanton, Elizabeth 57. Presley, Elvis 58. Joan of Arc 59. Kant, Immanuel 60. Roosevelt, Franklin D. 61. Faraday, Michael 62. Disney, Walt 63. Austen, Jane 64. Picasso, Pablo 65. Heisenberg, Werner 66. Griffith, D.W. 67. Zworykin, Vladimir Blaise Pascal

The father of computer engineering 13. Louis Pasteur The father of microbiology Thomas Bayes 69. Harvey, William 70. Pope Gregory Vll 71. Tubman, Harriet 72. Bolivar, Simon 73. Princess Diana 74. Fermi, Enrico 75. Pincus, Gregory 76. The Beatles 77. Hobbes, Thomas 78. Isabella

79. Stalin, Joseph 80. Elizabeth I 81. Mandela, Nelson 82. Bohr, Neils 83. Peter the Great of Russia 84. Marconi, Guglielmo 85. Reagan, Ronald 86. Joyce, James 87. Carson, Rachel 88. Oppenheimer, Robert J. 89. Anthony, Susan B. 90. Daguerre, Louis 91. Spielberg, Steven 92. Nightingale, Florence 93. Roosevelt, Eleanor 94. Patient Zero 95. Chaplin, Charlie 96. Caruso, Enrico

97. Salk, Jonas 98. Armstrong, Louis 99. Da Gama, Vasco James Clerk Maxwell The founder of electromagnetics The founder of statistical inference 61. Michael Faraday The father of electrical engineering 100. Suleiman I 68. Franklin, Benjamin

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) of the greatest names in the history of human thought Quantum Theory (very small) Newtonian Physics Relativity (very big) Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Newtons Contributions Newtonian Physics The Calculus Law of Universal

Gravitation In late editions of his Optics scientific works he [Newton] Reflecting expressed a strong sense of Telescope God's providential role in White light nature. Microsoft Encarta. components Namesakes Newton (mks unit of force) Newtons rings Newton Optimization

Newtonian Physics Apples Newton Newtonian constant of gravitation = 6.672 59 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2 God observed in nature... [The] beautiful system of the the sun, planets and comets could only proceed from the councel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being. Isaac Newton Newtons Philosophy of Nature: Selections From His Writings (Hafner Publishing, 1953) From Opticks by Isaac Newton (still in print!)

God in the beginning formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, moveable particles, of such sizes and figures, and with other such properties, and in such proportion to space, as most conduced to the end for which He formed them. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created. Revelation 4:11 Newton on Atheism Atheism is so

senseless and odious to mankind that it never had many professors. Isaac Newton quoted from Newtons Philosophy of Nature: Selections From His Writings (Hafner Publishing, 1953) Michael Faraday (1791-1867) Michael Faraday's scientific work laid the foundations of all subsequent electrotechnology. Lenore Symons, IEE Senior Archivist The Father of Electricity Faradays

Contributions Faradays Law Discovered electromagnetic induction: generators, motors & transformers. The Faraday Effect A magneto-optic effect in which the polarization plane of an electromagnetic wave is rotated under the influence of a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation. Discovered Benzene Michael Faraday... Build first practical electric motor. Coined the terms electrode,

anode, cathode electronic Namesakes Farad = unit of capacitance Faradays constant = F=96 485.309 C mol-1 was a devoted admirer of Faraday. While still in Berlin, [he] kept a large portrait of Faraday in his study. Albert Einstein... Later, having escaped the Nazis, Einstein again displayed

a large portrait of Faraday - this time in his Princeton study. Michael Faraday: Father of Electronics, Ludwig Charles, 1978, Herald Press, Scottsdale, PA . [Faradays] standard of duty was supernatural. It was formed entirely on what he held to be the revelation of the will of God in the written word, and throughout all his life his faith led him to act ... to the the very letter of it. Dr Bence Jones "The Life and Letters of Faraday. See also

Faraday & AWARDS Did Faraday seek fame? Faraday was offered and refused the Presidency of the Royal Society. He responded no "I must remain plain Michael Faraday to the very last." Thomas Bayes (1702 1761) Bayes Theorem P[ B | A]P[ A] P[ A | B] P[ B ] Baysian Inference: Making classifications using an historical data base.

Foundation of most modern e-mail spam filters. Thomas Bayes, Divine Benevolence,1731, and D.R. Bellhouse, The Reverend Thomas Bayes FRS: a Biography to Celebrate the Tercentenary of his Birth Thomas Bayes (1702 1761) Reverend Bayes was a pastor of the Presbyterian Chapel in Tunbridge Wells, 35 miles southeast of London. Bayes didnt bother to publish his mathematical work. It was all published posthumously. Bayes was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1742 having no published works on mathematics. Bayes did publish about his faith. God always does that which is right and fit, and that all his moral attributes, [namely] justice, truth, faithfulness, mercy, patience, [etc.] are but so many different modifications of rectitude. Thomas Bayes, Divine Benevolence, 1731.

D.R. Bellhouse, The Reverend Thomas Bayes FRS: a Biography to Celebrate the Tercentenary of his Birth James Clerk Maxwell On an Electrical Engineering Students T-Shirt... Maxwells And God said... D B E t B 0

D H J t and there was light. Equations Quotes To anyone who is motivated by anything beyond the most narrowly practical, it is

worth while to understand Maxwells equations simply for the good of his soul J.R. Pierce, Electrons, Waves and Messages, Hanover House, 1956. Was it a god who wrote these lines Ludwig Boltzmann Nobel prize winner in Physics on Maxwells equations (quoting a line from Goethe). [Maxwells equations] can be appreciated, by those who understand them, on an aesthetic level. Halliday & Resnick, Physics II, Wiley (1962)

a widely used undergraduate Physics text. The formulation of these [Maxwells] equations is the most important event since Newtons time Albert Einstein James Clerk Maxwell As with Faraday, his profound investigations into nature were concomitant with deep religious reverence for natures cause. Sir Joseph Larmor in the Biographical Notes

to: James Clerk Maxwell, Matter and Motion, (Dover, 1991). The only desire which I can ...have is, like David, to serve my own generation by the will of God, and then fall asleep. Maxwell (near death). Lewis Campbell & William Garnet, The Life of James Clerk Maxwell, Maxwell, London 1882, p.309 I believe ... that Man's chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy Him for ever. James Clerk Maxwell Ian Hutchinson

MIT IAP Seminar: The Faith of Great Scientists, Jan 98 Dimitri Egorov Egorov worked on triply Born: 22 Dec 1869 in Moscow, Russia Died: 10 Sept 1931 in Kazan, USSR orthogonal systems and potential surfaces and made major contribution to differential geometry. Egorov also worked on integral equations and a theorem in the theory of functions of a real variable is named after him In 1923 Egorov was elected president of the Moscow Mathematical Society

In 1923 Egorov became director of the Institute for Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University Dimitri Egorov The Church was repressed after the revolution. Egorov defended them. In 1922-23 and again in 1928, clergy were executed in mass. Egorov tried to prevent the attempt to impose Marxist ideology on scientists. In 1929 Egorov was dismissed as director of the Institute for Mechanics and Mathematics and given a public rebuke. Egorov was arrested as a "religious sectarian" and put in prison. An "Initiative group" took over the Society in November 1930. They expelled Egorov denouncing him as a reactionary and a

churchman. Egorov went on a hunger strike in prison and eventually died. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Keplers Laws 1. The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Keplers Laws Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Keplers Laws III. The ratio of the squares of the revolutionary periods for two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their semimajor axes. 2 P1 2 P2

3 R1 3 R2 Throughout his life, Kepler was a profoundly religious man. All his writings contain numerous references to God, and he saw his work as a fulfilment of his Christian duty to understand the works of God. Man being, as Kepler believed, made in the image of God, was clearly capable of understanding the Universe that He had created. Moreover, Kepler was convinced that God had made the Universe according to a mathematical plan.

When asked: Why do you do science?", Kepler answered that he desired in his scientific research to obtain a sample test of the delight of the Divine Creator in his work and to partake of his joy. Johannes Kepler (1623-62) Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal (1623-62) (1623-62)

PASCAL: a high level programming language designed by Niklaus Wirth in 1974 as a teaching language for computer scientists. Pascals Law: the pressure in a fluid is transmitted equally to all distances and in all directions. (hydraulics!) PASCAL: A unit of pressure. 1 bar equals 100,000 Pascal Pascals triangle. Pascal: Computer Engineer

In 1642, Pascal began to create a machine that would be similar to an everyday calculator to help his father with his accounting job. He finished the final model in 1645. He presented one to Queen Christina of Sweden and he was allowed a monopoly over it by royal decree. Pascal: the Mathematician 1 1 1 2 1 2 1

3 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 4 1 5 10 10 5 1 5 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 6 7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1 ... ... Pascals Triangle Pascal & AWARDS Fame is so sweet that we love anything we

connect with it, even death. Blaise Pascal (Pensees) Why do we watch a lot of TV, Monday night football & play computer games? Pascals thoughts.. . Man finds nothing so intolerable as to be in a state of complete rest, without passions, without occupation, without diversion, without effort. Then he faces his nullity, loneliness, inadequacy,

dependence, helplessness, emptiness. And at once there wells up from the depths of his soul boredom, gloom, depression, chagrin, resentment, despair. Pascals Thoughts ...there are two ways people avoid thinking about such matters: diversion and indifference. Regarding diversion, Pascal says we fill up our time with activities to avoid facing the truth of our state. The natural misfortune of our mortality and weakness is so miserable, that nothing can console us when we really think about it.... The only good thing for man, therefore, is to be diverted so that he will stop thinking

about his circumstances. Nirvanas Curt Cobain offers a Translation of Pascal: With the lights out it's less dangerous Here we are now. Entertain us. The denial, the denial, the denial, the denial, Smells like Teen Spirit Nirvana Were all motivated by belief in God?

Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827). Laplace transform X ( s ) x(t )e st dt 0 Laplace Noise Laplace helped to establish the metric system. Napoleon appointed Laplace Minister of the Interior but removed him from office after only six weeks because he brought the spirit of the infinitely small into the government. Napoleon asked Laplace why God was not mentioned in any

of his work on celestial mechanics. Laplace responded ... Laplace Sire, je navais pas besoin de cette hypothese. Sire, I had no need of that hypothesis. Petr Beckmann, A History of Pi, St. Martins Press, 1971. Researchers see: The Beauty of Creation! Some ask: Who Created this beauty? What a beautiful creation! Premise:

There is no lack of proof of God through His work. Predisposed by a blind faith world view and numbed by the continual presence of miracles, there is only an unwillingness to accept the evidence. The mere existence of [a] cell should be one of the greatest astonishments of the earth. People ought to walking around all day, all through their waking hours, calling to each other in endless wonderment, talking nothing else except that cell

If anyone does succeed in explaining it, within my lifetime I will charter a skywriting airplane, maybe a whole fleet of them, and send them aloft to write one great exclamation point after another, around the whole sky, until all my money runs out. Lewis Thomas, quoted by Henry Brand and Philip Yancey, Fearfully and Wonderfully Made (Grand Rapids: Zonderman, 1980) p.25 Romans 1:20 Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made. So they are without

Premise #2 Numerous great researchers embrace Christianity: The knowing of God, the creator of the universe, personally. Belief in Gods supremacy and saving grace made possible through the sacrifice of His son, Jesus Christ. Is this viewpoint prevalent today? References to God continued in the scientific literature until the middle to late 1800's. It seems likely that the lack of religious references after this time seem more

from a change in social and professional conventions among scientists rather than from any change in Indeed, contrary to popular myth, scientists appear to have the same range of attitudes about religious matters as does the general public. Alan Lightman (MIT) in Origins underlying thought. Christian Professors Today Professor William Zoller Chemistry

Professor Walter Bradley Mechanical Engineer Professor Phillip E. Johnson Professor of Law Professor John Walkup, Electrical Engineer Professor Vernon Burton

Professor of History and Sociology, Senior Research Scientist at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. Dr. Nancy Simpson Texas A&M University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign Dr. Liz Miller Texas A&M Dr. George M. Marsden Franscis A. McAnaney Professor of History Notre Dame marsden.html Dr. George M. Marsden Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of Texas, Austin Dr. Hugh Ross,

Astrophysicist Dr. Burford J. Furman Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering College of Engineering San Jos State University There is one God, the Father, ever-living, omnipresent, omniscient, almighty, the Maker of heaven and earth, and one Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus. Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton on Christ We account the Scriptures of God to be the most sublime philosophy. I find more sure marks of authenticity in the Bible than in any profane history whatsoever... Worshiping God and the Lamb [Jesus Christ] in the temple: God, for his benefaction in creating all things, and the Lamb, for his benefaction in redeeming us with his blood. Newtons Proclamation

Sir Isaac Newton Tryon Edwards, D.D., The New Dictionary of Thoughts-A Cyclopedia of Quotations (Garden City, NY: Hanover House, 1852; revised and enlarged by C.H. Catrevas, Ralph Emerson Browns, and Jonathan Edwards [descendent, along with Tryon, of Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758), president of Princeton], 1891; Sir Isaac Newton. Henry H. Morris, Men of Scienice-Men of God (El Cajon, CA: Master Books, A Division of Creation Life Publishers, Inc., 1988), pp. 23-26. The Standard Book Company, 1955,1963), P. 47. Henry H. Halley, Halley's Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1927, 1965), P. 19. Charles E. Jones, The Books You Read (Harrisburg, PA: Executive Books, 1985), P. 118. Faraday: Speculations [T]hough the thought of death brings the thought of judgment, it also brings to the Christian thought of Him

[Jesus Christ] who died, [and] rose again for the justification of those who believe in Him. Michael Faraday Walter Jerrold, Michael Faraday, Man of Science, p. 120. Stephen Abbott Northrop, D.D., A Cloud of Witnesses (Portland, OR: American Heritage Ministries, 1987; Mantle Ministries, 228 Still Ridge, Bulverde, Texas), p. 147. Speculations! I know nothing about speculations. Im resting on certainties. `I know my Redeemer liveth and because He lives I shall also live. purported to Faraday near death when queried by reporters about speculations of life after death . Michael Faraday: Father of Electronics, Ludwig Charles, 1978, Herald Press, Scottsdale, PA . Christ [is] the power of God

and the wisdom of God. The Christian religion is a revelation and that revelation is the Word of God. Michael Faraday George Wilson, Short Biographies for the People, Vol. IV. Stephen Abbott Northrop, D.D., A Cloud of Witnesses (Portland, Oregon: American Heritage Ministries, 1987; Mantle Ministries, 228 Still

Ridge, BuIverde, Texas), p. 147-8. Faradays faith in Christ James Clerk Maxwell and the Christian Proposition Ian Hutchinson MIT IAP Seminar: The Faith of Great Scientists, Jan 98 Clearly, from this early age, a devout Christian faith and demanding mental discipline were, for Maxwell, part of the same experience.

James Clerk Maxwell Think what God has determined to do to all those who submit themselves to his righteousness and are willing to receive his gift [of eternal life in Jesus Christ]. They are to be conformed to the image of his Son and when that is fulfilled and God sees they are conformed to the image of Christ, there can be no more condemnation. James Clerk Maxwell. Blaise Pascal We know God only through Jesus Christ

through Jesus Christ we know God. All who have pretended to know God, and prove Him without Jesus Christ, have only had impotent proofs. Pensees is French for "thoughts" "There is a God-shaped vacuum in the heart of every man, which only God can fill through His Son Jesus Christ." Pascals Wager How can anyone lose who chooses to become a Christian? If, when he dies, there turns out to be no God and his faith was in vain, he has lost nothing - in fact, he has been happier in life than his

nonbelieving friends. If, however, there is a God and a heaven and hell, then he has gained heaven and his skeptical friends will have lost everything in hell! Henry H. Morris, Men of Science-Men of God (El Cajon, CA: Master Books, A Division of Creation Life Publishers, Inc., 1988), pp. 15-16. Pascals Wager: A Venn Diagram No God You Believe! You Dont Believe. At least y o u le d a g ood

life! Life with limited purpose God Eternity Exists With God! Eternity Without God Science & Faith Premise #1: Some Scientists, Engineers and Mathematicians embrace a strong belief in God. Motivation for research,

in certain cases, stems in part from their curiosity of discovering Gods creation and the awe and remarkable beauty of the relationships they uncover. Knowing the painting is not the same as knowing the painter. Premise #2: The knowing of God, the creator of the universe, personally. personally Belief in Gods supremacy and saving grace made possible through the sacrifice of His Son, Jesus Christ. What Christians believe: 1. God LOVES you and offers a wonderful PLAN for your life. He loves you & wants you to know Him personally! 2. Man is SINFUL (imperfect)

and SEPARATED from God. Therefore, you cannot know and experience God's perfect love and plan for your life. imperfect What Christians Believe (cont)... 3. Jesus Christ is God's ONLY provision for man's sin. Through Him you can know and experience God's love and plan for your life. What Christians Believe (cont)

4. We must individually RECEIVE the gift of Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord (Master); then we can know and experience God's peace, love and plan for our lives. Pascals Conversion Pascals conversion to Christianity. Found in the lining of his coat on his death Monday, Nov 23, 1654

Certitude. Certitude. Feeling. Joy. Peace. God of Jesus Christ. "Thy God and my God." (Jn 20:17) Forgetfulness of the world and of everything, except God. Memorial In the year of grace, 1654, On Monday, 23rd of November, Feast of St Clement, Pope and Martyr,

And others in the Martyrology, Vigil of St Chrysogonus, Martyr, and others, From about half past ten in the evening until about half past Twelve, Fire! God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob, (Ex 3:6; Mt 22:32) Not of the philosophers and scholars. Certitude. Certitude. Feeling. Joy. Peace. God of Jesus Christ. "Thy God and my God." (Jn 20:17) Forgetfulness of the world and of everything, except God. He is to be found only in the ways taught in the Gospel. Greatness of the Human Soul. "Righteous Father, the world hath not known Thee, But I have known Thee." (Jn 17:25)

Joy, joy, joy, tears of joy. I have separated myself from Him. "They have forsaken Me, the fountain of living waters." (Jn 2:13) "My God, wilt Thou leave me?" (Mt 27:46) Let me not be separated from Him eternally. "This is eternal life,That they might know Thee, the only true God, And Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent." (Jn 17:3) Jesus Christ... Let me not be separated from Him eternally. "This is eternal life,That they might know Thee, the only true God, And

Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent." (Jn 17:3) Joy, joy, joy, tears of joy. Pascals Conversion (cont) Jesus Christ I have separated myself from Him: I have fled from Him, denied Him, crucified Him. Let me never be separated from Him. We keep hold of Him only by the ways taught in the Gospel. Renunciation, total and sweet.

Total submission to Jesus Christ and to my director. Eternally in joy for a day's training on earth. "I will not forget thy words." (Ps 119:16) Amen. Pascals Conversion (cont) PRAYER (traditional language):Almighty God, who didst grant to thy servant Blaise Pascal a Great intellect, that he might explore the mysteries of thy creation, and didst kindle in his heart a love for thee and a devotion to thy service: Mercifully grant to us thy servants, according to our several callings, gifts of excellence in body, mind, and will, and the grace to use them diligently and to thy glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. PRAYER (contemporary language): Almighty God, who gave your servant Blaise Pascal a great Intellect, that he might explore the mysteries of your creation, creation and who kindled in his

heart a love for you and a devotion to your service: Mercifully give us your servants, according to our various callings, gifts of excellence in body, mind, and will, and the grace to use them diligently and to your glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. ever (translation by Emile Caillet and John C. Blankenagel, Great Shorter Works of Pascal, Philadelphia, Westminster Press, 1948). See Solomons Sage Advice for Scholars... 11 The words of the wise are like goads, their collected sayings like firmly embedded nails-given by one Shepherd. Solomons Sage Advice 12 Be warned, my son, of anything in addition to them.

12b. Of making many books there is no end, and much study wearies the body. 13. Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole [duty] of man. Ecclesiastes 12 Finish

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