National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
Federal Sources for Disability Statistics Knowledge for Equity Conference November 13, 2012 U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Whats The National Institute On Disability and Rehabilitation? Located In the Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services (OSERS) Small-$111 million annual budget. Staff of 40. Fund disability research 2 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center What is NIDRR and What does it do? Legislative authority: Title II, Rehabilitation act of 1973, as amended.
Mission-generate new knowledge and promoting effective use of knowledge to improve the lives of people with disabilities. Expand societys capacity to improve the opportunities and accommodations for its citizens with disability For more information on NIDRR go to its website 3 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center The scope of NIDRR mandate Fund grants that conduct research, training and product technological products to improve the lives people with disabilities. NIDRRs core outcome areas Employment/Work Support Community Living and Participation Health and Function Cross-cutting Responsibilities Technology/Engineering Disability Statistics Cross-cutting Collaboration (ED-OSERS, RSA, HHS, Social Security, DOJ, VA, Treasury, EEOC, NIST, DOD)
4 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Disability Statistics. One of NIDRRs ten funding mechanisms are the Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers (RRTC) Supports the STATS-RRTC at Hunter College. http://disabilitycompendium.org Previously this Center was located at Cornell University. NIDRR no longer funds this center, but this is still one of the best sources for disability statistics http://www.disabilitystatistics.org 5 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center No One Data Set Covers All Data Needs American Community Survey (ACS) Conducted
by the U.S. by the U.S. Census Bureau. Annual survey of 3 million addresses in the U.S. Objectives Provide federal, state and local government agencies with information Replaced the replaced the decennial Census long form. Provides timely annual data on housing, social and economic statistics that can be compared across states, communities and population groups. 6 ACS Disability Questions ACS disability questions used to identify the population with disability. Six questions-new in 2008. These questions are now used by the Current Population Survey (CPS), and decennial Census and HHS Healthy People 2020 recommendation for inclusion in all future population health surveys. 7
Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Defining Disability-ACS six questions Hearing Disability (asked of all ages) Question 16a. Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing? Visual Disability (asked of all ages) 16b. Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses? Cognitive Disability (asked of persons age 5 or older) 17a. Because of a physical, mental or emotional condition does this person have difficulty concentration, remembering, or making decisions? 8 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center
Defining Disability-continued Ambulatory disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older) 17b. Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs? Self-Care disability (asked of persons ages 5 or older) 17c. Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing? Independent living disability (asked of persons ages 15 or older) 18. Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctors office or shopping? Overall disability in the U.S. Population is determined by the number of people reporting one or more of the six disability types.
9 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Other National Disability Data Sources Current Population Survey (CPS) The CPS has the advantage of being the most comprehensive measure of employment information for the U.S. from 1981 on. Tracks employment status. Conducted by the Census Bureau for BLS. Monthly, periodic and annual sample survey of 50,000 households in the U.S. Before 2008 used question about disability-related work limitations. Decennial Census 10 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center 2010 Census Special EEO File Available December 31,2012 Disability data will be released as part of the EEO file. This will include disability data by age, race, sex,
education, income, detailed occupation, employment, unemployment. Geographic data available for counties, SMSAs and the U.S. 11 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Other National Disability Data Sourcescontinued. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)Focuses on aspects of health status of the population and use of health services. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Survey conducted by Census Provides key data about source and amount of income, program participation. Measures the effectiveness of existing federal, state and local programs, estimates future costs and coverage of government programs, such as food stamps. Provides measures of economic well being. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
Objective of BRFSS is to collect uniform, state specific data on preventive health practices and risk behaviors that are linked to chronic diseases, injuries, and preventable infectious diseases that affect the adult population. 12 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Questions and Cautions When Using Disability Data What is the purpose of the survey and how does it define disability? What level of data does the survey provide? Use caution when comparing data among different surveys. Be careful when comparing data from one year to the next. 13 Disability Prevalence Rate in Population Ages 5+: 2010
People Without Disabilities (305,353,600) 14.9% People With Disabilities* (36,399,700) or 11.9% 88.1% *Does not include people living in Institutions. 14 14 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Prevalence (Current Population Survey) Percent of people ages 18-64 with a work limitation 8.2 8.1
8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 P e r c e n t w it h a w o r k lim it a tio n 7.9 7.9 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.6 7.6 7.6
7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 Summary of Current Data In 2008, 7.2 percent of people aged 18-64 reported a work limitation. This percentage represented a total of 14.0 million people. Source CPS using work limitation question to identify those with a disability. CPS is now using ACS disability definitions. . 15 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Nation and NIDRR Face Challenges in Disability
Persons with Substantial Disability as % of Projected US Population Persons with Substantial Disability as % of Population Between 20 and 64yrs 30 25.9 25 27.6 28.2 14.9 15.2 Percentage 22.8 20 20.6 15 12.4 13.1
14.1 10 5 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Source: RRTC Stats calculations for 2010 (American Community Survey) with future estimates applying distribution of disability by age cohort to projections of US population by age (Census Bureau). 16 16 Prevalence Rate of Overall Disability by Age: 2010 The prevalence of disability in the US was:
3.3 percent for persons ages 4 and under; 5.1 percent for persons ages 5 to 15; 5.4 percent for persons ages 16 to 20; 10.3 percent for persons ages 21 to 64;; 25.5 percent for persons ages 65 to 74; and 50.5 percent for persons ages 75. 17 Percent Disability Prevalence Rates, by Gender: 2010 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
65-74 Male 75+ Female 18 Source: American Community Survey Disability Prevalence Rates, by Race: 2010 Percent 25 20 15.9 15 11.9 12.4
13.4 10 8.4 6.1 5 0 Overall Disability White Black/African American Native American Asian Other Race(s) 19 Source: American Community Survey Median Annual Earnings of WorkingAge People (21 to 64) In 2010, the median earnings of working-age people with
disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in the U.S. was $35,900. In 2010, the median earnings of working-age people without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year in the U.S. was $41,360. In 2010, the difference in the median earnings between working-age people with and without disabilities who worked full-time/full-year was $5,460. 20 Source: American Community Survey Employment (full-time) Ages 21-64 Without 55.3% or 88,473,800 of 160,120,800 With a disability 21%, or 3,842,300 of 18, 348,600 Visual 24 % Hearing 35 % Ambulatory 15 %
Cognitive 11 % Self-Care 8.9% Independent living 7.3% 21 Source: American Community Survey Comparison of Median Household Income Between People With Disabilities and Those Without: 2010 $70,000.00 $59,400.00 $60,000.00 $50,000.00 $40,000.00 $36,800.00 $30,000.00 $20,000.00 $10,000.00 $0.00 Households with
People with Disabilities Households without People with Disabilities 22 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Poverty Gap for the Population with Disabilities In 2010, poverty rates were as follows: People without disabilities- 11.9 percent People with disabilities- 27.0 percent The gap between rates for people with disabilities and those without was 15.1 percent. 23 Source: American Community Survey P e r ce n t w it h at le ast a b ach e lo r 's d e gre e Percent of people with at least a bachelor's degree, 2005-2007 10.0
Self-care disability 5.4 5.8 Go-outside-home disability 4.8 4.6 Employment disability 5.3 4.8 Note: Ages 18-34 and not enrolled in school. Source: American Community Survey, 2005-2007. Summary of Current Data In 2007, there was no disability subgroup with more than 10 percent of people having at least a bachelors degree, with people with sensory disabilities having the highest percentage with at least a bachelors degree, at 9.6 percent.
24 Source: American Community Survey; Slide courtesy of Cornell University Disability Statistics Center Summary of Findings Presented Here Disability prevalence rates vary by geography, age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Individuals with disabilities are Increasing in number; Include persons of all race/ethnic groups. Less likely to have a college degree; When employed, likely to earn less than persons without disabilities; and More likely to live in poverty. 25 Improved Disability Data Challenges include: A constrained funding environmentkeeping what we have; Avoiding duplication of research efforts; and Developing and implementing a new national survey on disability Promising efforts include:
Revised ACS questions and inclusion of individuals living in Group Quarters; and New CPS questions on disability. 26 My Contact Information Doris Werwie, Ph.D. National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services U.S. Department of Education Phone: 202-245-6564 E-mail: [email protected] 27
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