Memory - UMass D

Memory - UMass D

Behavioral Perspective Basic assumptions: mind is useless construct focus of science of psychology on: a. observable behavior b. the roll of environmental influences on that behavior 1

Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning

2 Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 3 Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence.

4 Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 5 Classical Conditioning Sovfoto

Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories. However, it was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) 6 Pavlovs Experiments

Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not. 7 Pavlovs Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation

(now Conditioned Response, CR) 8 Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization. 9 Stimulus Discrimination

Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. 10 Extending Pavlovs Understanding Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness, or mind, unfit for the scientific study of psychology. However, they underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological

constraints. 11 Cognitive Processes Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms. However, later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn expectancy or awareness of a stimulus (Rescorla,

1988). 12 Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning. However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animals biology. 13

Biological Predispositions (preparedness) Courtesy of John Garcia Garcia showed that for some stimuli the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not to

others (light or sound). John Garcia 14 Higher order Conditioning a neutral stimulus associated with a CS can itself become a CS e.g. snake, picture of a snake, the word snake etc.

15 Classical Conditioning in everyday life Examples: a. b

c. 16 Conditioned disgust studies (Rosin et al.) Conditioned attitudes e.g. study of political slogans Case of Little Hans (Freud Vs Wolpe & Rachman)

17 Applications of Classical Conditioning Brown Brothers Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations, including Maxwell House, making

the coffee break an American custom. John B. Watson 18 Operant & Classical Conditioning 1. Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning, on the

other hand, forms an association between behaviors and the resulting events. 19 Operant & Classical Conditioning 2. Classical conditioning involves respondent behavior that occurs as an automatic

response to a certain stimulus. Operant conditioning involves operant behavior, a behavior that operates on the environment, producing rewarding or punishing stimuli. 20 Skinners Experiments Skinners experiments extend Thorndikes thinking, especially his law of effect. This law states that rewarded behavior is likely to occur again.

Yale University Library 21 Using Thorndike's law of effect as a starting point, Skinner developed the Operant chamber, or the Skinner box, to study operant conditioning. Walter Dawn/ Photo Researchers, Inc. From The Essentials of Conditioning and Learning, 3rd Edition by Michael P. Domjan, 2005. Used with permission by Thomson Learning, Wadsworth Division

Operant Chamber 22 Operant Chamber The operant chamber, or Skinner box, comes with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food or water. The bar or

key is connected to devices that record the animals response. 23 Types of Reinforcers Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkats behavior in the cold. Reuters/ Corbis

24 Primary & Secondary Reinforcers 1. Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. 2. Conditioned Reinforcer: A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing

power through association with the primary reinforcer. Example? 25 Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers 1. Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press.

2. Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. We may be inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers (watching TV) rather than large delayed reinforcers (getting an A in a course) which require consistent study. 26 Shaping

Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations. Fred Bavendam/ Peter Arnold, Inc. Khamis Ramadhan/ Panapress/ Getty Images A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminate objects of different shapes, colors and sizes. 27 Reinforcement Schedules

1. 2. Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs. Partial Reinforcement: Reinforces a response only part of the time. PR results in slower acquisition in the beginning, but it shows greater resistance to extinction later on.

28 Ratio Schedules 1. Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. e.g., piecework pay. 2. Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable

number of responses. This is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like gambling, fishing.) 29 Interval Schedules 1. Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam only when the exam draws

close.) 2. Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses. (e.g., pop quiz.) 30 Schedules of Reinforcement

31 Punishment An aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows. 32 Punishment Although there may be some justification for occasional punishment (Larzelaere & Baumrind, 2002), it often leads to negative effects.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Results in unwanted fears. Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in place of another. Justifies pain to others.

Causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its absence. Causes aggression towards the agent. *Conveys no new information to the organism. 33 Cognition & Operant Conditioning Evidence of cognitive processes during operant learning comes from rats during a maze exploration in which they

navigate the maze without an obvious reward. Rats seem to develop cognitive maps, or mental representations, of the layout of the maze (environment). 34 Latent Learning Such cognitive maps are based on latent learning, which becomes apparent when an incentive is given (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).

35 Applications of Operant Conditioning Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards. LWA-JDL/ Corbis In School

36 Applications of Operant Conditioning Reinforcement principles can enhance athletic performance. In Sports 37 Applications of Operant Conditioning

Reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership. At work 38 Applications of Operant Conditioning In children, reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence.

39 Skinners Legacy Skinner argued that behaviors were shaped by external influences instead of inner thoughts and feelings. Critics argued that Skinner dehumanized people by neglecting their free will. Falk/ Photo Researchers, Inc . 40

Two Factor Learning Mowrer Factor 1: Classical Factor 2: Operant

41 Dollard & Miller Learned Drives Conflict

e.g., Approach-Avoid attempt to operationalize Freudian concepts in behavioral terms and to test empirically 42 Learning by Observation Herb Terrace

Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others. Herb Terrace The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to

obtain a reward. 43 Bandura's Bobo doll study (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others. Courtesy of Albert Bandura, Stanford University Bandura's Experiments

44 Learning by observation begins early in life. This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV in pulling a toy apart. Meltzoff, A.N. (1998). Imitation of televised models by infants. Child Development, 59 1221-1229. Photos Courtesy of A.N. Meltzoff and M. Hanuk. Imitation Onset

45 Reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Subiaul et al., Science 305: 407-410 (2004) 2004 AAAS. Mirror Neurons Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning.

46 Take home message learning without behaving or reinforcement acquisition vs. performance

47 Applications of Observational Learning Unfortunately, Banduras studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have antisocial effects. 48

Modeling Violence Glassman/ The Image Works Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression. Children modeling after pro wrestlers 49

Positive Observational Learning Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Fortunately, prosocial (positive, helpful) models may have prosocial effects. 50 Assessment

Samples vs Signs Functional Analysis (SRC) (SORC) e.g., Ann ABAB design 51

Evaluating the Behavioral Perspective Contributions Problems/Criticism 52

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