Ling 390 - Intro to Linguistics - Winter 2005 Class 1 ...
Slide 1 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Rule ordering when there are multiple rules in the data, we have to decide if these rules interact with each other and how to order those rules to arrive at the correct outcome (surface forms as presented by the data). Ch 7 Slide 2
Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Consider the following English data. What are the two rules observed in these data? Liquid devoicing: Liquids become voiceless after a voiceless stop at the beginning of a syllable. Schwa deletion: Schwa is deleted in an open syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Slide 3 Ch 7
Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Rule application and derivation and order: Feeding = Two rules are said to be in a feeding order if the earlier rule creates environments in which the later rule can apply. Bleeding = If two rules, A and B, are in a bleeding order, the application of rule A causes a decrease in the number of forms to which rule B can apply. An example: suppose rule A changes some consonants from voiceless to voiced in some environments and rule B only applies to voiceless consonants. The application of rule A before rule B would mean that fewer forms are available for rule B to apply to. Counter Feeding = The ordering of two phonological rules so that Rule A, which could provide contexts for the operation of Rule B, is prevented from doing so by being ordered after Rule B
Counter Bleeding = The ordering of two phonological rules so that Rule A, which could remove contexts in which Rule B operates, is prevented from doing so by being ordered after Rule B. Slide 4 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Rule application and derivation: The predictable processes applying to the UR forms to derive the PR Output (PR) does not match data!
Ch 7 Slide 5 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Rule application and derivation: The predictable processes applying to the UR forms to derive the PR With respect to order of these rules and the actual outcome, what relationship must they occur in? Feeding Ch 7
Slide 6 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Canadian Raising Slide 7 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Rule ordering: Canadian raising - which rule applies is important for the outcome
flapping = tapping Slide 8 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Rule ordering: Canadian raising - which rule applies is important for the outcome This order predicts the actual speech correctly what relationship are these rules in?
Bleeding Slide 9 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II If the output shows surface forms below for some dialects (although as far as I know this is not attested!) then we seem to have a minimal pair. Hayes argues that this does not prove separate phonemes, but rather a displaced contrast. Basically, since the underlying forms of the tap show 2 phonemes (their distinction has been neutralized), and since the minimal pair only shows up before a
tap, then the forms do not show a minimal pair at the phoneme level. Kinda circular, but hey thats phonological theory! Slide 10 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Assume that [d] in this language is actually a dental sound, not alveolar
Also, are oral and nasal vowels allophones of the same phoneme or separate phonemes? Ch 7 Slide 11 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II before [r], [a]; after [m], [n]; word initially, etc i_ a
elsewhere #_ y #_ i all between vowels Ch 7 Slide 12 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II What are the phonemes?
/b/ /d/ and /g/ and oral vowels What 2 rules can you identify applying in the data? Voiced stops become voiced fricatives between vowels. Vowels become nasalized before nasal. Slide 13 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II What is the phonemic forms of the following: Ch 7
Slide 14 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Provide derivations for the following: Does it matter what order these words apply in? No, there is no feeding or bleeding relationship Slide 15 Ch 7
Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Chimwiini morphological rules: 1. Infinitive Formation V kuV when [+infinitive] 2. Final Vowel Attachment XC XCa in verbs (If a verb ends in a Cons, add /-a/) 3. Applicative Formation V Ve when [+applicative] 4. Reciprocal Formation V Van when [+reciprocal] 5. Passive Formation V V when [+passive]
Ch 7 Slide 16 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Data show that long and short vowels are phonemic from minimal pairs below But then we have the form And then we have the form And then We should expect So what happened to the long vowel???
Ch 7 Slide 17 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Terms: ultimate = final // penultimate = 2nd to last // antepenultimate = 3rd to last preantepenultimate = anything before 3rd to last We can explain by following rule: Preantepenultimate shortening = Shorten a vowel when at least 3 vowels
follow it: [+syllabic] [long] / __ C0 V C0 V C0 V Ch 7 Slide 18 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Here is the derivation Ch 7 Slide 19
Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Rule applies generally to vowels more than 3 syllables from end regardless of what affixes are used How do we justify underlying form? Ch 7 Slide 20 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II We see that vowels show up as long when end of word but NOT when end of phrase so we need 2 rules.
PFS WFL Slide 21 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Since phrase final is ALSO word final, we need to order the rules so that PFS applies after WFL so that we dont end up with a long vowel at end of phrase. How do we know this order? Try it both ways and see which gives us the grammatical surface form
Ch 7 Slide 22 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II What about interaction between WFL and Preantepenultimate Shortening (PAS) Preantepenultimate shortening (PAS) [+syllabic] [long] / __ C0 V C0 V C0 V WFL
One lengthens a vowel and one shortens it so they could interact. We need proof so here are some more data Ch 7 Slide 23 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II What about interaction between WFL and Preantepenultimate Shortening (PAS) Preantepenultimate shortening (PAS) [+syllabic] [long] / __ C0 V C0 V C0 V
WFL According to WFL, the final vowel of [kuna] should be long but it isnt. Why? Because it is more than 3 syllables from end so PAS blocks it. So we need to order them like this: Not like this: Ch 7 Slide 24 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II
What about interaction between WFL and Preantepenultimate Shortening (PAS) Preantepenultimate shortening (PAS) [+syllabic] [long] / __ C0 V C0 V C0 V More proof Therefore: WFL Ch 7
Slide 25 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Now we have this: To explain, we need this: PLS Ch 7 Slide 26
Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Here is a derivation: Slide 27 Ch 7 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Since all these rules deal with long and short vowels at different places in the word, then these rules need to apply in the correct order to arrive at the correct surface forms. Also, need to apply after morphology and after syntax since they refer to the domains of word final and phrase final!
Ch 7 Exercises 1-3 ask to prove what order these various rules apply. You need to show multiple derivations for each form to show when the rules are in a certain order, they will derive the correct output or not. Hayes gives you a hint by showing how the rules must be ordered Ch 7 Slide 28 Ch 7 Phonological Alternation II Look at Ex 5 Ch 7 and discuss. Look at fake Greek data and discuss.
Democracy. Selection of government officials through free and fair elections. The balance of majority rule and minority protection. Limitations on government action. Variants of democracy. Majoritarian, consensus. European, Westminster, American and Latin American models
Need to Add "Semantics" An example scenario (1) (Originally from Berners Lee, Scientific American paper) Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 The Building Blocks Semantic Web Architecture The ultimate goal - Web of Trust URIs XML...
It is possible for the nominal interest rate to be lower than the real interest rate. For this outcome to occur, the inflation rate has to be negative, meaning that the price level is decreasing rather than increasing. Deflation ....
Body symmetry. All animals have a body plan. Describes the shape, symmetry, and internal organization. ... Pouches of aquatic chordate embryos develop into gills slips and portions of the gills. ... Chapter 27 INTRODUCTION TO ANIMALS
The size of the colored area (the saved work input) varies with the value of the intermediate pressure P. x, and it is of practical interest to determine the conditions under which this area is maximized. The total work input...
Sample Results Page Design Drivers for Mosaic Service Cluster housed at IRSA/IPAC Rapid response and high throughput Pathfinder for projects such as LSST Design Goals Inexpensive, commodity hardware Highly fault-tolerant Scaleable, extensible and distributable Portable, open source software Modular software...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!