IPv6 Performance Geoff Huston APNIC Labs February 2015 What are we looking at: How reliable are IPv6 connections? How fast are IPv6 connections? What are we looking at: How reliable are IPv6 connections?
? d e e c c u s ts p m
e tt a n Do all TCP connectio How fast are IPv6 connections? ? 4 V n a
h t r e w lo s 6 Is V The Measurement Technique Embed a script in an online ad
Have the script generate a set of URLs to fetch Examine the packets seen at the server to determine reliability and RTT Measurement Count Measurement Count Yes, that
s 10 Mm easu reme nts p er da y! Log Measurement Count
What are we looking at: How reliable are IPv6 connections? ? d e e c c u s ts
p m e tt a n Do all TCP connectio How fast are IPv6 connections? ? 4 V
n a h t r e w lo s 6 Is V
Connection Failure Outbound SYN client server Busted SYN ACK Return path s an i s see ut no
r e erv YN, b s CK e S h A t g g
t n Wha incomi incomin in g h c t ma Compare two data sets The first data set has been collected across 2011
Teredo and 6to4 were still active as IPv6 mechanisms Little in the way of other IPv6 services The second data set has been collected across 2015/2016 Missing comparative IPv4 data for the period September October 2011 - Measuring Failure 2011 - Relative Connection Failure
Rates for V6 e t a r ailure f s i h
t Why is ibly high? ed so incr 2011 - Relative Connection Failure Rates Wha t is t his s pike?
And why is the V4 relative failure rate dropping over time? What is going on with IPv4? What is going on with IPv4? The failure rate for V4 decreases as the volume of experiments increases which implies that the number of naked SYNs being sent to the servers is not related to the number of tests being performed.
Aside from residual IPv4 failures in the image fetch due to device resets, connection dropouts, etc, the bulk of the recorded failures here is probably attributable to bots doing allof-address scanning on port 80 What is going on with IPv4? Syn attacks? bot scanning on port 80? What about IPv6?
Local Miredo Relay Failures Why is the base failure rate of all IPv6 connections sitting at 40%? This is amazingly bad! V6 Failure Rate by Address Type Teredo All V6 Average 6 to 4 Unicast
6to4 Failure is Local Failure 6to4 failure appears to be related to two factors: 1. The clients site has a protocol 41 firewall filter rule for incoming traffic (this is possibly more prevalent in AsiaPac than in Europe) 2. Load / delay / reliability issues in the servers chosen outbound 6to4 relay (noted in the data gathered at the US server) Even so, the 10% to 20% connection failure
rate for 6to4 is unacceptably high! V6 Unicast Failures January March 2012: 110,761 successful V6 connecting endpoints 6,227 failures Thats a failure rate of 5.3%! 7 clients used fe80:: link local addresses 7 clients used fc00:/7 ULA source addresses 2 clients used fec0::/16 deprecated site local addresses 16 clients used 1f02:d9fc::/16 Nobody used 3ffe::/16 prefixes!
Data Set 2: Connection Failure in 2015/2016 January 2015 January 2016 37,292,489 IPv6 endpoints 1,289,699 Failure rate (3.46%) Daily IPv6 Failures Daily IPv6 Failures RIP
Flash! HTML5 + TLS + Mobile Devices 6to4 7,498,506 6to4 endpoints high! y r e
v l l i t This is s 20% of all IPv6 used 6to4 9% failure rate within the set of 6to4 connections Daily IPv6 Failures
Daily IPv6 Failures 6to4 failure rate has improved from 15%-20% in 2011 to 9% in 2015 Teredo has all but disappeared Unicast failure rate is between 1.5% and 4% in 2015 Current unicast failure rate is 2% Killing off 6to4 Proportion of IPv6 connections using a 6to4 address
1,341 CILNET Comunicacao e Informatica LTDA.,BR AS32329 20.63% 126 MONKEYBRAINS - Monkey Brains,US AS17451 19.35% 248 BIZNET-AS-AP BIZNET NETWORKS,ID AS5707 19.35% 155 UTHSC-H - The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston,US Origin ASs with Zero Failure Rates AS3676 0.00% 2,149 UIOWA-AS - University of Iowa,US AS55536 0.00% 1,548 PSWITCH-HK PACSWITCH GLOBAL IP NETWORK,HK
Its still not good! IPv6 Unicast Failure rate: 1.6% (falling) IPv4 Failure rate: 0.2% (steady) What are we looking at: How reliable are IPv6 connections? ? d e e
c c u s ts p m e tt a n Do all TCP connectio
How fast are IPv6 connections? ? 4 V n a h t r e w
lo s 6 Is V Y Lets dive into SINs! Why SYNs? Every TCP session starts with a SYN handshake
Its typically a kernel level operation, which means that there is little in the way of application level interaction with the SYN exchange On the downside there is only a single sample point per measurement Generating a comparative RTT profile For each successful connection couplet (IPv4 and IPv4) from the
same endpoint, gather the pair of RTT measurements from the SYN-ACK exchanges Use the servers web logs to associate a couplet of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses Use the packet dumps to collect RTT information from the SYN-ACK Exchange Plot the difference in RTT in buckets 2012 Data Number of samples (log scale)
2012 Data IPv6 is faster 6 to 4 IPv6 is slower Teredo Unicast
RTT Difference (in fractions of a second) Number of samples (log scale) December 2015/January 2016 IPv6 is faster IPv6 is slower Unicast
RTT Difference December 2015/January 2016 Number of samples (log scale) 6to4 IPv6 is faster IPv6 is slower
RTT Difference Number of samples (log scale) December 2015/January 2016 IPv6 is faster IPv6 is slower RTT Difference
Proportion of samples 2015/6 RTT Data CDF IPv6 is faster Unicast RTT Difference (millisecs) IPv6 is slower
6 to 4 Proportion of samples 2015/6 RTT Data CDF IPv6 is faster IPv6 is slower Unicast
RTT Difference (milliseconds) 6 to 4 Proportion of samples 2015/6 RTT Data CDF IPv6 is faster IPv6 is slower
32% of samples unicast IPv6 is more than 10 msec slower than IPv4 6 to 4 Unicast 13% of samples unicast IPv6 is more than 10 msec faster than IPv4
Zero point is 0.44 RTT Difference (milliseconds) Is IPv6 as good as IPv4? Is IPv6 as good as IPv4? Is IPv6 as fast as IPv4? Basically, yes IPv6 is faster about half of the time For 65% of unicast cases, IPv6 is within 10ms RTT of IPv4
So they perform at much the same rate But thats just for unicast IPv6 The use of 6to4 makes this a whole lot worse! Is IPv6 as good as IPv4? Is IPv6 as robust as IPv4? IPv4 connection reliability currently sits at 0.2% The base failure rate of Unicast V6 connection attempts at 1.8% of the total V6 unicast connections is not brilliant. 6to4 is still terrible!
It could be better. It could be a whole lot better! Is IPv6 as good as IPv4? If you can establish a connection, then IPv4 and IPv6 appear to have comparable RTT measurements across most of the Internet But the odds of establishing that connection are still weighted in favour of IPv4!
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