Introductions and Conclusions

Introductions and Conclusions

Introductions and Conclusions Introduction Hook Broad Context Thesis Body Paragraph Body Paragraph Body Paragraph Conclusion

Restate your thesis Synthesize key ideas (LA) Universal Application Lit. analysis essays typically require an introduction with Hook an interesting lead that grabs readers attention Integrated quote Anecdote Interesting historical context Context a few sentences that set the situation for your essay Author bio Reception of book when originally published

Historical context Book overview/summary Reception of book in todays society Current event that is connected and relevant Thesis clear statement that defines what your essay will be about Introduction - HOOK Hook an interesting lead that grabs readers attention. Be careful not to make this statement too broad or too specific. Too Broad: Some things in life seem destined to happen, regardless of what we do to try to stop them.

Too Specific: In the play, Romeo and Juliet, the lovers are doomed from the start, and sure enough, end up dying by the plays end. Just Right: Many of Shakespeares tragedies illustrate the concept that individual will is no match for pre-ordained fate. Introduction - CONTEXT Context a few sentences that set the situation for your essay. Author bio Reception of book when originally published Historical context

Brief book overview/summary Reception of book in todays society Current event that is connected and relevant Example: (HOOK) Many of Shakespeares tragedies illustrate the concept that individual will is no match for pre-ordained fate. (CONTEXT) - Romeo and Juliet is a classic Shakespearean tragedy in this sense. In it, the young lovers struggle to overcome many barriers in order to be together. Introduction - THESIS Thesis clear statement that defines what your essay will be about. The thesis makes a claim about your topic or text, lays out key evidence to support this claim, and explains the

significance of this. Identifying thesis elements: What How SO WHAT? WHY does this matter? Introduction - DEVELOPMENT Consider using a frame-up device.

Introduction - DEVELOPMENT: Whats a FRAME-UP? 1) single word/image/idea 2) literary/historical allusion, 3) personal narrative that can provide a fresh way into and out of your writing, surrounding it much like a window frame surrounds a glass pane or a decorative frame surrounds a picture or mirror.

Introduction - DEVELOPMENT: Why a FRAME-UP? A carefully crafted frame can give a piece of writing a deeper sense of meaning and a way into and out of the assignment that escapes the over-used traditional patterns. A carefully crafted frame can make satisfying metaphorical connections for both reader and writer, giving the paper a deeper sense of meaning and a way into

and out of the assignment. Use a frame-up in conjunction with your essay context setup, which you may also integrate with your hook. The Single-Word, Single-Image, SingleIdea Frame Syndicated columnist William Safire often relies on a single word as a framing device. In a 1994 article, he calls on tsunami, the Japanese word for a "great wave caused by underwater seismic shock," to frame an article on the shock that caused the conservative wave of that year.

His introduction connects the definition of tsunami with the main idea of his article: the majority of voters "shook up" legislators to express their lack of faith in an ever-growing government. The column ends with a second mention of the tsunami, identifying it as a shock that does indeed change everything and that leads to exciting days politically, an analogy that reinforces his (but not everyone's) opinion. The Single-Idea Frame Intro to Huck Finn essay by S.S. 2016

At the beginning of a childs life, 700 to 1000 new neural connections are made every second; meaning that a child takes in 700 to 1000 new pieces of information each second (HarvardCenter). .Huckleberry Finn, a young boy growing up in a society where he is told what to think and how to behave, has had his groundwork laid by the active civilization around him. ..In his satirical novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twains young protagonist, Huckleberry Finn, chooses a life of natural instincts in juxtaposition to a conventional upbringing, criticizing societal pressures to conform.

The Single-Idea Frame Conclusion to Huck Finn essay Through the juxtaposition of nature and society, Twain condemns civilizations pressures, which promotes Finns freedom of thought in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. In natures solitude, Finn processes his own experiences and makes his own conclusions. Though his upbringing may not be traditional, a journey through nature grants Finn with an opportunity to explore his thoughts without the noise of others. Each one of those 700 to 1000 connections in his brain are solely Huckleberry Finns, and in each second away from society an uneducated

delinquent becomes smarter than any civilized adult. Allusions as Framing Devices In an essay about healthy body image, a writer used the following allusion in her intro/conclusion: Snow White fairy tale Intro - I was obsessed with female beauty as the media portrays it. Every day Id ask: Mirror, mirror on the wall, whos the fairest of them all? Conclusion - I no longer ask whos the fairest, but instead I ask the mirror whos the healthiest.

Allusions as Framing Devices Literary allusion references also make effective framing devices. In a newspaper, a letter to the editor from an angry professor responds to an editorial in which the editorial writer is accusing the university teachers of "salary whining." The professor puts to work Edgar Allen Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" as a literary framing device, quoting Poe's opening sentence as his opening sentence: "The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I could; but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge." The writer uses the words of Poe's narrator to convey his own indignation at being flagrantly wronged about salary whining accusation. but the final sentence refers again to Poe's story: "Ah, for a fresh

batch of cement, a stack of bricks, and a good trowel," the very tools, readers of Poe will recognize. By humorously framing hostile feelings, the professor emphasizes his point: Overworked and underpaid, he and his colleagues do not appreciate editorials claiming otherwise. Personal Experience as a Framing Device In a particularly effective paper on the negative impact television violence can have on children, one of student begins with a description of his family's extended Thanksgiving dinner. The student explains that the peacefulness he felt as the family members gathered to give thanks vanished once he entered the family room where his younger cousins were mobilized in front of the television for the Power

Rangers program. After watching intensely physical confrontations, the normally docile three- to twelve-year-olds turned into "miniature fighting machines." They eagerly kicked and punched any interloper, forcing the narrator to leave and question the laissez faire child-rearing attitudes of the children's parents. This incident acts as a segue that connects the family experience with his topic: the growing problem of children's viewing of TV violence and possible solutions to this problem. The writer concludes by offering a plan for handling the situation at the next Thanksgiving dinner: "I may not be the most popular cousin for turning off the Power Rangers, but what is popular is not always right, and what is right is not always popular. I can live with not being popular. WARNING

Do NOT let your frame-up run away with/overpower your introduction. It should be BRIEF, only enhancing the context setup and thesis. Conclusion Development A conclusion should stress the importance of the thesis statement give the essay a sense of completeness leave a final impression on the reader. Conclusion Suggestions Answer the question "So What?" Show your readers why this paper was important.

Show them that your paper was meaningful and useful. Synthesize, don't summarize Don't simply repeat things that were in your paper. They have read it. Show them how the points you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together. Conclusion Suggestions Redirect your readers Give your reader something to think about, perhaps a way to use your paper in the "real" world. If your

introduction went from general to specific, make your conclusion go from specific to general. Think globally. Create a new meaning in a Universal Application You don't have to give new information to create a new meaning. By demonstrating how your ideas work together, you can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts. Be Careful! Even if your conclusion offers a way to use your paper in the real world, do NOT use the word you or we or any other personal pronoun ANYWHERE in your essay! This evidence shows us that we should be wary of power. NO

This evidence reveals that power is a dangerous force. YES Introduction Hook Broad Context Thesis Body Paragraph Body Paragraph Body Paragraph Conclusion Restate your thesis

Synthesize key ideas LA - Universal Application/Theme

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