# Intro to physical science

WHAT IS PHYSICAL SCIENCE? Physical Science is the study of the things around you. It has to do with matter and energy. WHAT IS MATTER? Can you think of examples of matter?

Matter is anything that takes up space ALL MATTER HAS MASS What IS mass? Mass is the amount of material that an object has. TWO AREAS OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Chemistry Physical Science PHYSICS The study of how energy acts with matter CHEMISTRY

The study of matter and how it changes TOOLS OF PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS Scientists answer questions by doing experiments To do experiments/observations, scientists need tools In your notes, try to name each of these scientific tools and what you think they do.

METRIC SYSTEM BASICS METRIC SYSTEM The metric system is based on base units that are used for each kind of measurement Length = meter Volume = liter Weight (Mass) = grams

We add prefixes to base units to measure larger and smaller things Prefixes that make them Prefixes that make them smaller or part of one larger than one base base unit: unit: Milli -- 1/100th Centi -- 1/100th th Deka 10 Hecto 100

METRIC SYSTEM Prefixes + base units make up the metric units Examples: Centi + meter = Centimeter Kilo + liter = Kiloliter METRIC SYSTEM

Here is a more visual way to chart how we use prefixes and bases: Base Units kilo hecto deka meter gram liter

deci centi milli METRIC SYSTEM So if you needed to measure length you would choose meter as your base unit METRIC SYSTEM

But what if you need to measure a longer distance, like from your house to school? Lets say you live approximately 10 miles from school 10 miles = 16093 meters 16093 is a big number, but what if you

could add a prefix onto the base unit to make it easier to manage: 16093 meters = 16.093 kilometers (or 16.1 if rounded to 1 decimal place) METRIC SYSTEM Metric prefixes are based on multiples of 10. From each prefix every step is either: 10 times larger

or 10 times smaller For example Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters

Base Units kilo hecto deka meter gram liter deci centi

milli METRIC SYSTEM An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each step desired Example: change meters to centimeters 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100.0 centimeters kilo

hecto deka Meter deci centi milli METRIC SYSTEM

If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right kilo hecto deka

meter liter gram deci centi milli METRIC SYSTEM Summary Base units in the metric system are

meter, liter, gram Metric system is based on multiples of 10 For conversions within the metric system, each step is 1 decimal place to the right or left kilo hecto deca meter liter gram

deci centi milli FORMULAS FOR AREA & PERIMETER PERIMETER

Any shapes perimeter is the outside of the shapelike a fence around a yard. To calculate the perimeter of any shape, just add up the lengths of all sides 20 PERIMETER Triangles have 3 sidesadd up each sides length. 8

8 8 8+8+8=24 The Perimeter is 24 21 PERIMETER What is the perimeter of this square? 12 12

12 12 12+12+12+12=48 22 HELPFUL HINTS Squares ALL sides are equalso if they

give you one side, you know ALL the sides Length=the Largest side If numbers are left out, they are equal to their opposite side. For example, if you see a number at the bottom of a rectangle then the top of the rectangle is going to be equal to the measurements bottom. 23 OTHER SHAPES

Just add up EACH segment 10 8 sides, each side 10 so 10+10+10+10+10+10+10+10=80 24 AREA Area is the ENTIRE INSIDE of a shape It is always measured in squares (cm2, m2) 25

AREA OF SQUARES/RECTANGLES AREA =Length x Width 2 Length(2) xWidth(2) = 4 square units 26 AREA What is the area of the rectangle below?

3cm 9cm VOLUME . VOLUME Volume works with all three dimensions of an object (length, width, and height) and measures

the space that an object takes up. Volume= Length X Width X Height Calculate the volume of this prism 6cm 8cm

5cm The volume is 240cm3 Calculate the volume of this prism 5cm 12cm

3cm The volume is Liquid Volume & Volume of Irregular objects Measuring Volume We will be using graduated cylinders to find the volume of liquids and other objects. Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water. What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mL

What causes the meniscus? A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides. Top Image: http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/resources/online/2006/grade8/science/images/ 20graphicaa.gif What is the volume of water in each cylinder? A B Pay attention to the scales for each cylinder.

C Images created at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframework/downloads/SWF/measuring_cylinder.swf Measuring Liquid Volume Measuring Volume of Irregular Objects We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement. Amount of H2O with object = ______ About of H2O without object = ______ Difference = Volume = ______ Click here for an online activity about volume.

Choose Lessons Volume & Displacement http://resources.edb.gov.hk/~s1sci/ R_S1Science/sp/en/syllabus/unit14/new/ testingmain1.htm We can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height. DENSITY DENSITY

Density is a physical property of matter that describes how closely packed together the atoms of an element or molecules of a compound are. The more closely packed together they are, the more dense the object. Hence, it can be helpful to know the densities DENSITY

Density involves mass AND volume of an object! Mass is the amount of matter contained in an object and is commonly measured in units of grams (g). Volume is the amount of space taken up by an object Units used for volume: cubic centimeters (cm3) for solids milliliters (mL) for liquids FYI 1cm3 = 1 mL.

DENSITY = MASS/VOLUME Formula for density = mass divided by volume Density is a property of matter that is defined as the ratio of an object's mass to its volume. units for density: Solids: grams per milliliters (g/ml) Liquids: grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm 3). Watch Video Clip about density, mass, volume, and matter: http://

studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/matter/pr operties-of-matter.htm Density of Some Common Substances Density can be confusing. For example, many items that we commonly think of as "light" or "heavy" do not have different masses, but they do have different

densities. Video clip: Science 360: Density & Sports Substance Density (g/cm3) Air 0.0013 Feathers

0.0025 Wood(Oa k) 0.6 0.9 Ice 0.92 Water 1.00

Bricks 1.84 Aluminu m 2.70 Steel 7.80 Silver

10.50 Gold 19.30 EXAMPLE Waters density = 1.0 g/mL: If objects density is more than that, it will sink in water, if an objects density is less than that, it will float

in water If an objects density = water, it will be suspended in water. LIQUIDS AND GASES Density applies not only to solids, but liquids and gases Example: Hot air rises because its less dense than the cool air

Example: Oil floats on top of water SOLVING FOR DENSITY 1. A student determines that a piece of an unknown material has a mass of 5.854 g and a volume of 7.57 cm3. What is the density of the material, rounded to the nearest hundredth? 5.854 g divided by 7.57cm3 Density = 0.7733 g/cm3 DENSITY D = 0.77 g/cm3

Will this object sink or float in water? Floatits density is less than 1.0 g/mL Is this a solid or a liquid? Solid

SOLVE ON YOUR OWN! Mass = 16 g, Volume = 13.5 mL, Density = ? Does it sink or float in water? Is it a solid or liquid? Mass = 45 g, Volume = 6.7 cm3, Density = ? Does it sink or float in water? Is it a solid or

liquid? Mass = 15.9 g, Volume = 4.3 mL, Density = ? Does it sink or float in water? Is it a solid or liquid? BUOYANCY BUOYANCY The buoyant force acts in the direction opposite to the force of gravity, so it makes an object feel lighter Buoyant Force upward force exerted by a fluid on

a submerged object BUOYANCY Archimedes principle states that the buoyant force acting on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid the object displaces FLOATING AND SINKING If the weight of the object is greater

than the buoyant force then the object will sink If the weight of the object is less than the buoyant force then the object will float

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