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Movements in American Literature Survey of American Literature 1: Colonials to Revolutionaries (1620-1820) Bradford, Bradstreet, Edwards, Franklin, Jefferson, Mather, Paine, Wheatley. 2: An Age of Renaissance (1820-1865) Emerson, Hawthorne, Irving, Melville, Poe, Thoreau, Whitman. 3: Probing Reality (1865-1914)

Adams, Dickinson, Dreiser, Howells, James, Sinclair, Twain. 4: Between the Wars (1915-1945) Anderson, Fitzgerald, Hemingway, O'Neill, Pound, Sandburg, Wright. 5: After the War (1945-present) Bellow, Ellison, Heller, Kerouac, Mailer, Roth, Salinger, Williams. What is post-colonial literature?

Definition of post-colonial: all the culture affected by the imperial process from the moment of colonization to the present day Post-colonial literatures emerged in their present form out of the experience of colonization and asserted themselves by foregrounding the tension with the imperial power, and by emphasizing their differences from the assumptions of the imperial centre the local vs the metropolitan center Spatial metaphors: center, margin, periphery (Said: a conscious affiliation proceeding under the guise of filiationa mimicry of the centre )

Development and Concerns of Post-Colonial Literature 1. texts produced by representatives of the imperial power 2. literature produced under imperial license by natives or outcasts Hegemony of RS-English (Received Standard English)linguistic hierarchy English vs englisheslinguistic continuum Place and displacementdislocation, cultural denigration The power of marginality Critical Models

national and regional models 2. race-based models 3. comparative models 4. wider comparative models ex. hybridity and syncretism (the 1. process by which previously distinct linguistic categories, and by extension, cultural formations, merge into a single new form) (15) National and Regional Models

National model: ex. American literature difference from British literature [ American literatures] Metaphors: parent-child, parent tree-offshoot, stream-tributary (16) Wole Soyinkathe process of selfapprehension (17) Regional model: ex. West Indian literature or Caribbean literature (18) Comparative Models the metropolitan-colonial axisBritain as a standard: in-school readers; a

normative core of British literature, landscape, and history (Wordsworths daffodils); colonial adventure Race-Based Models: the Black Writing Model the African diaspora NgritudeCsaire, Senghoressentialist definition of Black culture (emotional; integration and wholeness,; rhythmic and temporal principles)the danger of turning into a new universal paradigm Black consciousness movement, Black Power movements in the US Saidthe danger of adopting a double kind of

possessive exclusivism Naming Commonwealth literature1960s Third World literatures new literatures in English colonial literatures post-colonial literatures post-European Place and Language D. E. S. Maxwell: the appropriateness of using non-indigenous languageimported

tongue alien to the place Settler colonies (the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand)transplanted civilization Invaded colonies (India, West Africa) indigenous culture marginalized double vision (local + metropolis) Limitationsnot comprehensive enough (the West Indies and the South Africa); lack of linguistic subtlety, essentialist Thematic Parallels celebration of the struggle towards independence in community and individual the dominating influence of a foreign culture of

post-colonial societies the construction or demolition of houses the journey of the European interloper through unfamiliar landscape with a native guide Use of allegory, irony, magic realism, discontinuous narrative exile Colonizer and the Colonized Franz Fanon and Albert Memmi the possibility of decolonizing the culture

full independencereturn to precolonial languages (Edward Brathwaite, Chinweizu) inevitable cultural syncreticity (Wilson Harris, Soyinka) Dominated and Dominating Max Dorsinville To account for the changes in American literature To account for minority literatures Irish, Welsh and Scottish literatures Subversion in the dominated literatures empire writes back to the imperial center

Post-colonial Language 1. 2. Language as a medium for powerabrogation and appropriation to re-place English 3 main types of linguistic groups monoglossic: single-language societies using english as a native tongue diglossic: bilingualismenglish as the language of government and commerce

India, Africa, the South Pacific polyglossic or polydialectical: a multitude of dialects interweave to form a generally comprehensible linguistic continuum linguistic intersectionsCaribbean The Construction of English The world language called english is a continuum of intersections in which the speaking habits in various communities have intervened to reconstruct the language. 2 ways of reconstruction: 1. Regional english varieties introduce new words 2. National and regional peculiarities

English is continually changing and growing (becoming an english) Appropriation Abrogation is a refusal of the categories of the imperial culture, its aesthetic, its illusory standard of normative or correct usage, and its assumption of a traditional and fixed meaning inscribed in the words.must be combined with appropriation to avoid being a reversal of the assumptions of privilege, the normal, and correct inscription (38) Appropriation is the process by which language is taken and made to bear the

burden of ones own cultural experience, or to convey in a language that is not ones own the spirit that is ones own (38-39) Abrogation Reactions against the notions of centrality and the authentic in the process of decolonization Privileges the margins; refutes a standard code (40) or rejects the possibility of returning to some pure and unsullied cultural condition (anti-universalist, anti-representational stance) (41) The english language as a tool to textually construct a world, it also constructs

difference, separation, and absence from the metropolitan norm. (44) Metonymic Function of Language Variance post-colonial writing abrogates the privileged centrality of English by using language to signify difference while employing a sameness which allows it to be understood. It does this by employing language variance, the part of a wider cultural whole, which assists in the work of language seizure whilst being neither

transmuted nor overwhelmed by its adopted vehicle. Signifying processpost-colonial texts as metonymy; language variance itself as metonymic of cultural difference Language Variance: Allusion the process of allusion installs linguistic distance itself as a subject of the text. The maintenance of the gap in the cross-cultural text is of profound importance to its ethnographic

functions. Strategies of Appropriation Contrast the appropriated english with SE (59) Editorial intrusions: footnotes, glossary, the explanatory preface, etc. (61) Glossing: the most primitive form of metonymy (62)absence/gap between word and its referent Untranslated words: selective lexical fidelity (64) forces the reader into an active engagement with the horizons of the culture in which these terms have meaning.indicating the gap, a sign of distinctiveness; an endorsement of the

facility of the discourse situation (65) Interchange: to generate an inter-culture by the fusion of the linguistic structures of two languagesa term coined by Nemser and Selinker to characterize the genuine and discrete linguistic system by learners of a second language. The concept of an interlanguage reveals that the utterances of a second-language learner are not deviant forms or mistakes, but rather are part of a separate but genuine system. Syntactic fusion: to mix the syntax of local language with the lexical forms of English

(68); developing (colloquial) neologisms The Gothic Term used by 18th Century Neoclassicists as synonymous with barbaric to mean anything that offended classic tastes. Romanticists of 19th century looked on the gothic with favor. To them it suggested anything Medieval, primitive, natural, wild free, authentic, romantic.

Elements of the Gothic that they celebratedvariety, richness, mystery, aspiration The gothic is a way for us to examine the realm of the irrational and the perverse impulses and nightmarish terrors that lie beneath the orderly surface of the civilized mind. In America what does that represent?

The Gothic Novel Magic, Mystery, and chivalry are chief characteristic Setting of first gothic novel (Horace Walpoles Castle of Otranto) was set in a medieval (gothic) castle with underground passages, trap doors, dark stairs, and mysterious rooms where doors slam unexpectantly. Early American Gothic novelist Charles

Brockden Brown (1771-1810) Wieland (1798) Elements of the gothic have become cliche now to the point of melodrama, but the horror movie and gothic elements in fiction continue to abound and to be popular Modern authors combine the gothic, romance, and realism

Extended to a type of fiction which lacks medieval settings but develops a brooding atmosphere of gloom and terror, represents events which are uncanny, or macabre, or melodramatically violent, and often deals with aberrant psychological states. Characteristics of Romanticism

Idealization of rural life Enthusiasm for the uncivilized or natural Enthusiasm for the wild, irregular, or grotesque in nature or art Innocence over experience Use of fresh, even common language rather that poetic diction Abandonment of the heroic couplet in favor of blank verse and experimental forms of verse Characteristics of Romanticism

Sensibility (emotionalism as opposed to rationalism) Sentimental melancholy Emotional psychology Individualism

Interest in human rights Sympathetic interest in the past (esp. medieval = gothic) Mysticism Primitivism Love of nature Romanticism (American Movement 18301865)

--Sensibility (emotionalism as opposed to rationalism) --Primitivism --Love of nature --Sympathetic interest in the past (esp. medieval = gothic) --Mysticism --Individualism --Abandonment of the heroic couplet in favor of blank verse and experimental forms of verse --Use of fresh, even common language rather that poetic diction --Idealization of rural life

--Enthusiasm for the uncivilized or natural --Enthusiasm for the wild, irregular, or grotesque in nature or art --Interest in human rights --Sentimental melancholy --Emotional psychology

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