Interaction between Pain and Fear: A functional MRI study A ...
Connectivity of a subgenual cingulate target for
Johansen-Berg H1, Behrens TEJ1, Matthews PM1, Katz E2, Metwalli N2, Lozano A3,
Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, University of Oxford, UK; 2Emory
University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; Toronto Western Hospital,
Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
stimulation (DBS) of
subgenual cingulate (BA25)
results in dramatic
remission of symptoms in
some previously treatmentresistant patients 
Effects of stimulation
may be mediated via
From Mayberg et al, Neuron, 2004
Here, we use tractography to define the likely
connectivity of this region using diffusion data
acquired in healthy control subjects.
4: Left: Distribution
of connections from
subgenual region to target areas. Group average results
showing probability of connection from subgenual seed
voxels to each target regions. Colour scale indicates
probability of connection from low (red, 50/5000 paths
reach target) to high (yellow, 500/5000)
Above: Subgenual voxels colour coded
according to the target region with highest probability
of connection: red=DCG; yellow=VMF; blue=NAC; green=OFC.
(Note that this representation shows only the most
probable connections. There is a high degree of overlap
in connections to all eight target regions tested - see
subgenual cingulate based on
connectivity identifies two
Diffusion MR data: We acquired diffusion weighted images
(1.5T, max gradient strength 40mTm-1, 2x2x2mm voxels, 60
directions, b=1000smm-2) in 17 healthy subjects.
Locating electrode sites: We used routinely acquired
post-operative MR scans to locate electrodes in 13
patients (9 responders, 4 non-responders) treated with
DBS for depression . Locations of contacts used for
stimulation were projected onto a standard brain with
reference to local landmarks by an experimenter blind to
Figure 1: Localising electrodes.
Left: example patient own scan with
indicated by cross hairs. Right:
Location on standard brain
matrices for 16
electrodes on standard brain.
Probabilistic tractography: Diffusion images were
processed using FDT [3,4]
(http://www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Using a multi-fibre
diffusion model , we generated probabilistic
connectivity distributions from the whole subgenual
cingulate and from individual masks of stimulated
To characterise the connectivity of the whole subgenual
region we first found the distribution of connections to
regions of interest chosen on the basis of changes in
PET activation following subgenual DBS .
Figure 3: Target ROIs. Pink=amygdala (Amy); Blue=Hypothalamus (Hth);
Green=Nucleus Accumbens (NA); Orange=Peri-acqueductal grey (PAG); Light
Yellow=ventral medial frontal (VMF); Brown=dorsal cingulate (DCG);
Black=subgenual seed mask.
we used blind connectivity-based parcellation
 to detect whether we can define boundaries within
tractography is run from every voxel in a seed mask (a) and the
probability of connection to all other voxels in the brain (b) is
recorded in a connectivity matrix (c).
The cross-correlation matrix
(d) of the connectivity matrix is found and re-ordered (e) to bring
voxels with similar connection patterns close to each other. In this
way, clusters in the re-ordered matrix represent regions with distinct
matrix was manually
clusters, which are
mapped back onto the
blue=non-responders) in relation to
anterior (red-yellow) and posterior
(blue-turquoise) clusters in subgenual
electrode contacts. Electrode contacts
are projected onto DTI data from
generated. Paths consistently travel to
hypothalamus, cingulum bundle, medial
connection to each target region is calculated
and normalised. Electrode locations in most
regions. Connections to ventral medial frontal
cortex are variable and those to dorsal medial
frontal cortex are absent in two patients and
of low probability in others (see Figs 4 and
Connections to PAG do not survive
The anterior and posterior portions of the subgenual
cingulate have distinct patterns of connectivity. Most
effective electrode locations were situtated in the
The effective action of DBS for depression may be
mediated via connections from both these regions to
hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, medial
prefrontal cortex, dorsal cingulate and orbitofrontal
We cannot determine the relationship between response
to surgery and connectivity with such small patient
numbers, and by projecting contacts onto control DTI
data, but this preliminary result generates hypotheses
that could be further tested in larger follow-up studies.
Acknowledgements. Funded by the Wellcome Trust (HJB) and the UK MRC (HJB).
References: 1. Mayberg et al., Neuron (2005) 2.Katz et al., OHBM Meeting
et al., NeuroImage
(2004) 4. Behrens
et al., Magn Reson
5. Behrens et
al., submitted. 6. Johansen-Berg et al., Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A (2004).
region with the effective connectivity fingerprint .
PTOM : une situation originale vis-à-vis de l'Europe. Sans référence expresse, ni les dispositions générales du TFUE, ni le droit communautaire dérivé ne leur sont applicables, ils ne bénéficient pas de l'euro (sauf ST Barthélémy), ni des fonds structurels européens
i.e.aerobics, spinning, fit boxing, TRX, swimming, climbing, hockey, table tennis, basketball and many more . Organizes or co-organizes individual sporting events. ... hiring a project manager involved in preparing applications for aid from OP VVV funds.
Praxe ve Věznici Karviná Kateřina Porzerová Věznice Karviná Rozdělení věznic obecně s dohledem s dozorem s ostrahou a se zvýšenou ostrahou Oddělení pro imobilní odsouzené Náplň práce sociální pracovnice Při nástupu odsouzeného na VT dotazník sociální anamnéza sociální posouzení karta...
IN MRS TILSCHER'S CLASS by Carol Ann Duffy. The task we are going to concentrate on as we . begin to examine . this poem is: Choose a poem that deals with a childhood experience. Discuss to what extent the...
The Geometry of a Tetrahedron Footnote 18:Section 10.4 Mark Jeng Professor Brewer What is a tetrahedron? A tetrahedron is a solid with 4 vertices: P, Q, R, and S. There are also 4 triangular faces opposite the vertices as shown...
lived miserably in one-room huts, these people were also known . as SERFS. Clergy. Monks were learned people. Most -including the nobility- were illiterate! Nuns were allowed to sing . and compose music for their choirs. Medieval Music. Most medieval...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!