INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY WHEN WAS INTELLIGENCE FIRST LOOKED AT?? The notion of testing humans to rate their intelligence was first proposed in 1905 by Alfred Binet and his student Theodore Simon. They developed a test (Simon-Binet test) that they believed would help educators distinguish more intelligent children from children who were less intelligent.
In 1916 Lewis Terman (psychologist working at Stanford University) designed a system of categorizing intelligence in adults as well as children. This test was named the Stanford-Binet test. This test took anyones final test score and determined his/her intelligence based on that persons age. This measure of intelligence became known as the intelligence Quotient or IQ. ISSUES WITH IQ TESTS? Most psychologists now agree that IQ scores only measure one area of intelligence: a persons ability to take a test. What influence does society have on IQ??
-upbringing (culture) -school -Positive or negative feedback Self-fulfilling prophecy -Cultural Bias HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=PDQREAR6JFC PULL OUT A PIECE OF PAPER STERNBERGS THEORY OF SUCCESSFUL
INTELLIGENCE Robert Sternberg proposed his Triarchic Theory of Intelligence in the 1980s -Sternbergs definition of human intelligence is a mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to ones life, which means that intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Sternbergs theory comprises three parts: -componential (analytical) -experiential (creative)
-practical (contextual) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7C7qIRYiv0 STERNBERGS THEORY Sternberg believes how much intelligence a person has is not important; what is important is how the person uses the intelligence.
GARDNERS THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES 1983 Howard Gardner proposed that intelligence was diversified and multifaceted. -You could be intelligent in one area (such as math) and another person may be intelligent in another totally-unrelated area (such as music), but both exhibit equally important intelligences. Gardner was among the first psychologists to broaden the definition of intelligence beyond just mathematical, logical and verbal reasoning. Existential: Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested
that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct, HUNTS THEORY ON PROBLEM-SOLVING INTELLIGENCE 1980s Earl Hunt was more interested in studying the individual differences in problem solving. Believed that intelligence should be measured by analyzing an individuals unique ability to solve problems.
Interested in how the individual represented the problem in his/her mind and the various strategies the person could develop to solve the problem. Interested in finding the best use for each persons unique style of problem solving VYGOTSKYS ZONE OF PROXIMAL INTELLIGENCE Lev Vygotsky had a very forward thinking of intelligence. -Believed that a childs intelligence should be measured by his/her proximal development.
Zone of Proximal development: is the difference between what a child can do on his/her own and what the child can do with teaching and instruction. Therefore, Vygotsky believed that an intelligent child will be able to learn from others. The concept of the zone of proximal development was originally developed by Vygotsky to argue against the use of academic, knowledge-based tests as a means to gauge students' intelligence. CATTELLS TWO FACTOR THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
Raymond Cattell believed that people have two types of intelligence- Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence Fluid Intelligence: The type of intelligence a person is born with. Intelligence that is not learned in schools. STREET SMARTS Crystallized Intelligence: The type of knowledge learned in school. Catell believed that the kind of intelligence measured by standard IQ tests was important, but he also believed a persons street smarts was equally important. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF GROUP
AND INDIVIDUAL TESTING Group Tests: PROS: Less expensive, not as time consuming, more data in a short period of time, easy to administer CONS: Inaccurate information recorded, in a group you cant test different aspects of intelligence such as Gardners interpersonal intelligence theory. Individual Tests: PROS: Not influenced by outside behavior in the current situation, test different types of intelligence, CONS: Time consuming, expensive
DIFFERENT TESTS The revised Standford-Binet Test: Traditional IQ test that gives an IQ score.
Measured individually Measures intelligence in four separate areas (verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short-term memory)
-Usually used to identify individuals who may be considered gifted or who have serious learning problems WESCHLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC-III) Very much like the Standford-Binet test but differs because it also measures vocabulary, block design ability, number span, and the ability of a child to understand. Administered individually, and children must answer both verbally and perform certain tasks. Also used to identify gifted children as well as children who may have serious learning problems. This test has been re-vised two times to eliminate cultural bias.
There is also an adult version of the test that is available. WISC- III Verbal Task: -Describe how objects and/or concepts are similar to each other -Define concepts of increasing difficulty -Children are asked why some things are done in certain ways to check their understanding and comprehension -Children are asked general questions about things most children their age would know
Performance Scale: -Children assemble puzzles and duplicate designs of play-blocks -Pencil mazes are presented, and the subject is asked to find the way out -After being shown pictures, children are asked to tell what the missing picture is -Subjects are asked to put in the proper order a series of photographs that tell a story PEABODY PICTURE VOCABULARY TESTREVISED Is an untimed, individual test that usually takes about 15 minutes to administer.
The examiner says a word and the person being tested must point to one of the 4 pictures that represent the word. The words are arranged from least to most difficult and the test concludes when the person answers incorrectly 6 times in a row. This test measures only vocabulary and is used to identify adults and children with severe communication difficulties or with poor reading skills
DRAW-A-PERSON TEST This is a group test in which a child is asked to draw a person as well as he/she can in a certain time frame. The drawing is then scored according to specific criteria. This test is supposed to assess the mental development of the child as well as provide an indicator of the childs emotional well-being. COGNITIVE ABILITIES TEST -Also referred to as (CogAT) is a group test that can be given to students in grades three to thirteen. -It gives three different scores for verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning, and quantitative reasoning.
-Used to assess how well a child is doing in school compared to other children of the same age. -These tests are very similar to the standardized tests given in Canada in grades six, nine, and for final grades THE BIASED NATURE OF IQ AND STANDARDIZED TESTS Culture Bias (Remember Raymond Cattell recognized the way tests discriminated against the less privileged and people from other cultures)
Tests a persons ability to take a test or their preparation. Other factors can influence a test score (life events, tired, stress, hungry, etc) Labelling Self-fulfilling prophecy IQ CORRELATIONS IQ and Birth Order:
Over a hundred years ago Francis Galton recognized a trend that many noted intellectuals were the first-born children in their families. These children not only had a higher IQ, but also had a higher need to achieve, and were more likely to attend college. IQ Stability across different ages: At one time psychologists believed a persons IQ remained constant throughout their life. In 1987, Flynn examined data in 14 countires, spanning over 50 years and discovered that IQ scores increased as people got older. This correlation was later termed the Flynn Effect.
IQ CORRELATIONS IQ and family income: Higher IQ scores with an increase in family income WHY??? -Provide the necessary resources such as textbooks, tutors, learning toys for children IQ and Relatives IQs: Psychologists have found that if a childs parents have high Iqs than the child will most likely have high IQs.
Children will most likely benefit from their parents knowledge, have the help provided when needed, and children will most likely be expected to do as their parents have done (attend university for instance) IQ CORRELATIONS What about the brain size or structure?? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxPWAw9nemU
WHAT IS PERSONALITY??? Is it the way we act? Is it who makes who we are? Can it be defined by the people we hang out with? Are we born with our personality? Can we change our personality over time? Personality: the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUrV6oZ3zsk
PERSONALITY 1) Personality is what people must develop to get along in the world. 2) Others believe that a personality is a mathematical combination of various factors. 3) While others believe that a personality is the self that someone chooses to show others. Personality, in the field of organizational behavior, is the persons feelings, thinking, behaviors and responses to different situations and people.
-However, there is not one universally-accepted personality theory because it is impossible to prove that theory in a scientific manner. POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY???? DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Genetics
Environment Learning Traits Existential-humanistic considerations Unconscious mechanisms Cognitive Factors Sociocultural factors Personality as a composite of factors
LETS LOOK AT SOME PERSONAILITIES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8RxUN6pbhw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VihlsPKMh4U What about split personalities??? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2atzoaA2NI What causes split personalities?? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfiB82OUXf0 SIGMUND FREUD
Intro to Sigmund Freud https://prezi.com/palhmczcnchv/sigmund-freud/ https://prezi.com/baar68-zvlvq/sigmund-freud/ ID,EGO, & SUPEREGO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCXynjpFaKU SIGMUND FREUD Psychosexual Stages: Believed that all children had to go through similar experiences before they reached adulthood. He classified these experiences as occurring in 5 unique stages.
-Believed that any problem in adulthood could be traced back to something going wrong in one of these stages. The Oral Stage The Anal Stage The Phallic Stage The latency Stage The Genital Stage
CRITICISMS OF FREUDS WORK Focuses too much on childhood Lacks validity because they cannot be scientifically tested Sexist against women CARL JUNG Born in Switzerland in 1875, studied psychiatry.
Was a friend of Freud until Jung expressed some doubts about Freuds theories. The two men stopped communication and Jung entered into a dark period of his life full of depression and near madness. Emerging from his 4 year absence he came back with a new individual theory on personality CARL JUNG Jung, like Freud, believed that 3 components made up personality: the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious.
Ego: represents everything about human beings having conscious thoughts. Include thinking, remembering, and perceiving Personal unconscious: Represents all that people were once conscious of in their past but have now forgotten Includes disturbing thoughts that cannot be dealt with when they first occur
EX. These may be emotions felt when a parent unjustly punished, criticized, or abused a child Collective unconscious: Represents the past thoughts and experiences of everyones previous ancestors, also called evolutionary experiences. These experiences are unconscious, but they may resurface during times of stress or danger. Ex.Inborn fears of encountering strangers, large animals, or dangerous weather
CARL JUNG Popularized the terms Introverted and Extroverted Extraversion is "the act, state, or habit of being predominantly concerned with obtaining gratification from what is outside the self". Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative, assertive, and gregarious. Extraverts are energized and thrive off of being around other people. Introversion is "the state of or tendency toward being wholly or predominantly concerned with and interested in one's own mental life". Introverts are typically perceived as more reserved or reflective https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LxZ1fPr9FJg
JUNGIAN TECHNIQUES Word Association Test Lets Try it!! Pull out a piece of paper and write down the first thought that comes to mind when I give you a word https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4SH5uaGN3Y -Was used to give the therapist a clue into thoughts held in a personals unconscious
Jung presented a client with certain stimulus words that were developed to (trigger potential memories) in the personal unconscious. A clients unusual response to the word (could include stammering, repeating or failing to respond) signaled to the therapist that he or she was very close to discovering a disturbing unconscious thought.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDplLi_N9B0 ERIK ERIKSON Born in Germany in 1902. His ideas were greatly influenced by Freud, going along with Freuds (1923) theory regarding the
structure and topography of personality. However, whereas Freud was an id psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist. He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id and the superego. Experiment Time!!!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kO1kgl0p-Hw ERIKSON The first five stages of Eriksons eight stages of personality developments roughly correspond to Freuds
stages of psychosexual development. However, Erikson focused less on sexuality and more on social demands put on individuals. Criticisms: Critics believed that Eriksons theory was overly optimistic about how humans want to live. Other critics believed that Eriksons theory was simply his way of preaching to others how they should live. His theory was unscientific because it resisted true scientific testing. RAYMOND CATTELL
Raymond Bernard Cattell was a British and American psychologist, known for his psychometric research into intrapersonal psychological structure and his exploration of many areas within empirical psychology. These multifaceted areas included: the basic dimensions of personality and temperament, the range of cognitive abilities, the dynamic dimensions of motivation and emotion, the clinical dimensions of abnormal personality, the applications of personality research to psychotherapy and learning theory, predictors of creativity and achievement, and many multivariate research methods including the refinement of factor analytic methods for exploring and measuring these domains.
TEST TIME!! CATTELL Factor Analysis: Cattells way of determining scientifically the type of personality a person may have based on some of his/her traits. Cattell studied peoples traits and tried to identify correlations between the traits. By determining whether certain traits were related, Cattell hoped to be able to predict all the traits a person may possess based on only a few indicator traits.
B.F. SKINNER https://prezi.com/b0abooqethch/bf-skinner/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA operant conditioning) (example of
SOCIOBIOLOGY THEORY-CHARLES DARWIN Charles Darwin was one of the first scientists to propose a theory of evolution (survival of the fittest) Sociobiologists- believed that people with adaptable personalities are able to pass their genes on to their off spring while people who are unable to adapt their personalities die out. E.O. WILSON & D.P. BARASHS
EXTENSION Wilson and Barash were two of the first psychologists to start applying sociobiology theories to human behavior. They produced sociobiological explanations for rape, suicide, and many other abnormal behaviors. RAPE: They suggested that men whose genes were so inferior that they could never get a mat so this lead to rape. SUICIDE: People committed suicide because again their genes they felt were inferior and not worth trying to pass on.
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST EUGENICS What is Eugenics? It is a social philosophy advocating the improvement of human genetic traits through the promotion of higher rates of sexual reproduction for people with desired traits (positive eugenics), or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGq-MbmL5c0
CARL ROGERS Rogers is considered a pioneer in developing more personal techniques when dealing with clients seeking therapy. Actualizing Tendency: Believed that all humans have the need to survive, grow, and enhance themselves. That people strive to become better people. Client-centered Therapy: Believed that the client is able to solve his/her own problems with the help of the therapist. Believed it is the therapists responsibility to try and understand the clients view of the world.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0yU-YJ6sjY ABRAHAM MASLOW One of Maslows most famous contributions to psychology was his hierarchy of human needs. He believed that people needed to satisfy certain levels of needs in a certain order if they were to become the best people they could be.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQJwE6yg6cY CHARACTERISTICS OF SELFACTUALIZING Two of the figures he believed to be self-actualized were Albert Einstein and Eleanor Roosevelt. Criteria for Self-actualization was: The ability to perceive reality accurately and fully. The ability to accept ones self and others without judgement. The ability to be concerned with problems that do not involve themselves.
Being creative Having a strong ethical sense. CRITICISMS He was criticized for being overly optimistic in regards to human nature Critics believed that Maslows theories did not account for people who did terrible things nor for those who do not care for others. Lacking scientific basis
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