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Public Opinion on Single-Payer, National Health Plans, and Expanding Access to Medicare Coverage Poll findings KFF Health Tracking Polls Figure 1 Most Support Federal Government Doing More To Help Provide Health Insurance, But Republican Support Has Declined Over Time Percent who say they favor the federal government doing more to help provide health insurance for more Americans: November 2006 September 2008 January 2019 Tot 75% 74% 85% 96% 92% 94% Demo... Indepen... Republ... 73% 77% 40% SOURCE: KFF Polls. See toplines for full question wording and response options. 49% 72% 86%

Figure 2 A National Health Plan Didnt Garner Majority Support Until 2016 Percent who favor or oppose a national health plan in which all Americans would get their insurance from a single government plan: Oppose Favor 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 53% 55% 40% 39% 1998-2000 (avg of 6 polls) 2002-2004 (avg of 2 polls) 49% 43% 46% 50% 2008-2009 (avg of 7 polls) Feb 2016 50%

40% 30% 20% 10% 0% SOURCE: KFF Polls. See toplines for full question wording and response options. Figure 3 Slight Majority Support A National Medicare-for-all Plan Do you favor or oppose having a national health plan, sometimes called Medicare-for-all, in which all Americans would get their insurance from a single government plan? Favor 80% 59 57 557566 5556 60% 5353 5151 47 45 4342 42 43 39 38 38 3 8 37 40% 20% 0% SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Polls. See topline for full question wording and response options.

Oppose Figure 4 Partisans Divided With Seven In Ten Republicans Opposing Medicare-for-all While Three-Fourths Of Democrats Favor It Do you favor or oppose having a national health plan, sometimes called Medicare-for-all, in which all Americans would get their insurance from a single government plan? Strongly favor Somewhat favor Somewhat oppose -0.31 Demo... Indepen... Republ... -0.52 -0.26 -0.22 0.1 -0.25 0.1 -0.26 0.12 -0.13 Strongly oppose 0.33 0.1

0.33 -0.15 0.09 SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (November 7-12, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. 0.6 Figure 5 Terminology Affects Public Opinion On A National Health Plan Do you have a positive or negative reaction to each of the following terms? Positive Negative No opinion Universal health cov... 63% 31% Medicare-fo... 63% 34% 3% 36% 5% National health... Single-payer health insurance s... Socialized med... 59%

49% 32% 46% SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (April 11-16, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. 44% 6% 19% 11% Figure 6 Medicare-for-all, Universal Coverage, National Health Plan Garner Most Positive Reactions Percent who say they have a positive reaction to each of the following terms: Total Republicans Independents Medicare-for-all Universal health coverage National health plan Single-payer health insurance system Socialized medicine SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (April 11-16, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. Democrats Figure 7 Reasons For Opinions On National Health Plan Echo Partisan Messages AMONG THE 39% WHO OPPOSE: What is the main

reason you oppose such a plan? Medicare-for-all Dont want government in... 23% AMONG THE 56% WHO FAVOR: What is the main reason you favor such a plan? NET: 40% Health care Universal co... is34%a right 7% Oppose 39.00% Too expensive to imp... 14% Favor 56.00% DK/Ref. 5.00% Limits choice/compe... 14% SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (March 13-18, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. Make health care more affordable/ Costs to... 17% Figure 8 Universal Coverage Is Most Important Feature Of A National Health Plan Among Supporters How important is it that a national health plan? Very important Somewhat important Not too important Covers all Amer...

89% Simplifies the health care s... Eliminates out-of-pocket costs like co-pays and deduct... Eliminates private health insurance comp... 1% 9%1% 79% Eliminates monthly prem... Shifts what people pay for health care to ... Not at all important 18% 1% 2% 56% 33% 8%2% 56% 32% 8%3% 45% 38% NOTE: Among those who favor a national health plan. SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (March 13-18, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options.

38% 29% 8% 6% 19% 11% Figure 9 Majorities Think Many Aspects Of Health Care System Would Be Unchanged Under Medicare-for-all Do you think each of the following would happen under a national health plan, sometimes called Medicare-forall? 78% Taxes for most people would inc... 19% 69% People would continue to pay deductibles and co-pays when they use health care ser... All U.S. residents would have health insurance cov... 27% 34% 62% 2% 4% 4% People with insurance through their jobs would be able to keep their current ... 55% 38% 7% People who buy their own insurance would be able to keep their current ...

55% 39% 7% Individuals and employers would continue to pay health insurance pre... 54% 39% 6% Doctors and hospitals would be paid... 52% 41% 7% Private health insurance companies would still be the primary way Americans get cov... 40% SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (May 30-June 4, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. 53% 7% Figure 10 Attitudes Shift After Hearing Messages About How Medicare-for-all Would Impact Current System Would you favor or oppose a national Medicare-for-all plan if you heard that it would do each of the following? Favor Lead to delays in people getting some medical Lead to delays in people gettingand

sometreatments medical tests and treatm... tests Threaten the current Medicare Threaten the current Medicare pro... program Require most Americans to pay Require most Americans to pay more in t... more in taxes Eliminate private health insurance Eliminate private health insurance compa... companies Eliminate all health insurance outEliminate all health insurance premiums and reducepremiums out-of-pocket and healthreduce care costs for most Ameri... of-pocket health care costs for most Americans Guarantee health insurance as a right for all Guarantee health insurance as a right for all Ameri... Americans SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (January 9-14, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. Oppose 70% 26% 60%

32% 60% 37% 58% 37% 30% 67% 27% 71% Figure 11 Some Moderate Shifts In Support For Medicare-for-all Depending On Description Of Plan Would you favor or oppose a national Medicare-for-all plan if you heard it would Oppose Eliminate private health insurance, but allow people to choose their doctors, hospitals, and other medical providers -0.54 Favor 0.43 Require many employers and some individuals to pay more in taxes, but eliminate health insurance premiums and deductibles for all Americans -0.48 0.48 Increase the taxes that you personally pay, but

decrease your overall costs for health care -0.47 0.48 SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (conducted November 7-12, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. Figure 12 Uncertainties Persist About National Health Plan Provisions Percent who think that, if a national Medicare-for-all plan was put into place, they and their family would be able to keep their current health insurance Would be able to access the health care they need Would not have to pay more in taxes to cover the cost of health insurance 19.00% 27.00% 35.00% 4%; 4.00% 55.00% 6%; 6.00% 67.00% 10%; 10.00% SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (January 9-14, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. 77.00% Figure 13

Most Medicare-for-all Supporters Think They Would Be Able To Keep Their Health Insurance Yes, think they and their family would be able to keep their current health insurance No, think they and their family would not be able to keep their current health insurance Among those who favor having a national health insurance plan or Medicare-for-all Total Among those who oppose having a national health insurance plan or Medicare-for-all 24.00% 35.00% 41.00% 51.00% 55.00% 9.00% 67.00% 10.00% 8.00% SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (January 9-14, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. Figure 14 More Democrats Prefer Candidate Who Would Build On The ACA Thinking about the Democratic candidates approach to health care. Would you prefer to vote for a candidate who wants to? Replacing the ACA with Medicare-for-all 40.00%

Build on the existing ACA 55.00% DK/Ref. 5.00% NOTE: Among Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents. SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (September 3-8, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. Figure 15 There Is Broader Support For Expanding Optional Public Health Insurance Programs Than Medicare-for-all Percent who favor or oppose: Oppose Favor 100% 90% 80% 70% 43% 29% 24% 18% 18% 74% 75% 77% 60% 50% 40%

30% 20% 53% 66% 10% 0% Medicare-for-all Public option Optional Medicare-for-all SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Polls. See toplines for full question wording and response options. Medicaid buy-in Medicare buy-in for ages 50-64 Figure 16 More Incremental Approach To Universal Coverage: Medicare Buy-In And Medicaid Buy-In Do you favor or oppose Total allowing people between the ages of 50 and 64 to buy insurance through the Medicare program? 18% Democrats 12% Independents 19%

Republicans 26% 77% allowing people who dont get health insurance at work to buy health insurance through their state Medicaid program? 18% 12% 85% 75% 69% 20% 26% SOURCE: KFF Health Tracking Poll (January 9-14, 2019). See topline for full question wording and response options. 75% 85% 75% 64%

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