n #ILcon16 Introduction Beginning in Britain in the eighteenth century, and then followed by western Europe, North America, Russia, and Japan, the industrial revolution transformed life in an almost unprecedented manner. Machines driven by new inanimate sources of power replaced traditional animal or human-powered labor. The developing machine age increased worker productivity, economic specialization, and large-scale enterprise. While industrialization would in the end raise the material standards for much of the world, it also led to immense social and economic dislocation as well as tremendous short-term suffering. Socialists
such as the Utopians and the more influential Karl Marx #ILcon16 Key Terms and People Industrialization: The shift from human and animal power to other forms like, Coal, steam, fossil fuels, and Electricity Textile Mills: Factories that make cloth. The first mechanized industry. Flying shuttle: mechanized the weaving process (making cloth) Spinning Mule: Mechanized the Spinning Process (making thread). An improvement upon an earlier invention, the spinning jenny James Watt: Made a more efficient steam engine that could be used to power everything from factory equipment to ships
#ILcon16 Key Terms and People Putting-Out system: Old method of production. Cottage Industry: Done in peoples homes where each home specializes in one part of the process (one home spins thread, another weaves fabric, ..etc.) Factory system: Replaced Putting-Out system. Dominated manufacturing by the mid 19th century. Required mechanization and wage laborers Luddites: Craftsman who were angry their jobs were replaced by the factory system, so they attacked factories and smashed machines. Eli Whitney: Invented the Cotton Gin to remove seeds from fiber, but more importantly, he invented #ILcon16
Key Terms and People Henry Ford: Introduced the assembly line to automobile manufacturing, making the process more efficient Mass production: producing a whole lot of standardized/identical products Corporations: Large companies owned by private investors and led by a board of directors Monopoly: When a company eliminates competition. Achieved one of two ways: Vertical integration- buying related companies that feeds into the primary business. Example: John D. Rockefeller owned every aspect of the oil business in the United States. Horizontal integration- Buying out every competitor #ILcon16 Key Terms and People
Middle Class: new class of business people and professionals that had wealth, but no formal titles of nobility (Sir, Lord, Duke, Ladyetc.) Working class: People who worked in the factories and mines Child Labor: Kids working in mines and factories. Used extensively during the industrial revolution. Economic Inequity: Seen by Socialists as the primary problem with Capitalism Karl Marx and Freidrich Engles: Wrote the Communist Manifesto. Marx believed that all of history had been a history of class struggle between two classes: l a i r t
s u d o n i t u l o v e R n #ILcon16 Focus Questions
1. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? Which industries were the first to mechanize? 2. What was the factory system? How was the process of industrialization similar/different in Great Britain, United States, and Germany? 3. What is industrial capitalism? 4. How were populations affected by early industrialization? 5. What is the relationship between industrialization, urbanization, and global migration? 6. How were societies changed by industrialization? 7. What is socialism and what is its relationship to the Industrial Revolution? 8. How did industrialization spread, where did it spread, why, and #ILcon16 Why did the Industrial Revolution begin
in Great Britain? Which industries were the first to mechanize? The Textile industry (clothes, fabric) was the first to mechanize. The industrial revolution began in Britain for a few reasons: Smaller populations meant the need for labor saving devices England had a lot of coal and Iron ore that was easy to get to that could power steam engines Ties to American colonies provided raw materials/ resources #ILcon16 What was the factory system? How was the process of industrialization similar/different in Great Britain, United States, and Germany? The factory system replaced the putting-out system
that preceded it. Manufacturing shifted from hand made cottage industry to machine made in the factory. Workers specialized in one part of the production process, so rather than have one person make an entire product, several people made one part of a product. Hours were long, Workers and work quality were tightly supervised. When industrialization spread, Belgium and France were at the forefront of innovation while Germany lagged behind. Plentiful natural resources made the US an industrial #ILcon16 What is industrial capitalism? Industrialization required expensive machines which made it necessary for businesses to find investors. This led to the birth of corporations where investors would buy stock in a company (a
share of ownership) in exchange for sharing in the profits. Laws limited the liability and potential losses of investors. How were populations affected by early industrialization? #ILcon16 Populations became more urban as laborers moved from the countryside to the cities to work in factories. Due to advances in medicine and agriculture, people lived longer, infant mortality decreased, and people had more access to food, which led to larger populations despite the fact that families were having fewer children (birth rate declined)
What is the relationship between industrialization, urbanization, and global migration? #ILcon16 Industrialization is the mechanization of Industry. This occurs in factories, factories are in cities. People move there to work, which leads to urbanization (growth of cities). In some cases people even move across continents and oceans, such as the many immigrants that came for Ireland and Eastern Europe to not only escape famine in their own countries, but to work in How were societies changed by
industrialization? #ILcon16 Family dynamics changed. Before industrialization, manufacturing was done in homes by entire families. Under the factory model, family members began living more separate lives. The Role of men was enhanced as bread winners whereas upper and middle class women were expected to stay home and raise children. Lower class women and single women were still required to work. Upper class professionals were introduced to a #ILcon16
What is socialism and what is its relationship to the Industrial Revolution? Socialism was a reaction to the social and economic inequality created by the Industrial revolution. They see the ultimate goal of society as greater equality, not just of opportunity, but of outcome as well. Communism, an ideology associated with Karl Marx and has its roots in socialism argues that all of history is one of class struggle between owners and workers, and the only way true equality can exist is if the proletariat (workers) overthrow the Bourgeoisie (Capitalist owners) and spread the means of How did industrialization spread, where did it spread, why, and what were the effects of itThe spreading?
governments of both Russia and Japan took a #ILcon16 more active role in industrialization than the governments of Western Europe and the United States, which relied more on private enterprise. In Russia, Finance minister Sergei Witte initiated large scale projects to modernize, the most successful of which was the Trans-Siberian Railway. In Japan, the entire social structure changed. The Samurai class was abolished and without government Stipends, the old Samurai families were forced to make a living. Many of them partnered with the government to form Mnemonic Aid: Tric Rose
#ILcon16 The first Industrial Revolution (Britain) Textiles: The first industry to mechanize Railroads: early locomotives like Stephenson's rocket Iron: The building material of the early industrial age Coal: The fuel of the early industrial age The Second Industrial Revolution (U.S. and Germany) Railroads: Transcontinental in America and Trans-Siberian in Russia Oil: For combustion engines in Automobiles Steel: Stronger and lighter than iron l
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