Information Technology Project Management - Fourth Edition
Project Planning: Scope and the Work Breakdown Structure Chapter 5a 5-1 Project Planning Framework MOV Scope Sequence Phases Schedule
Tasks Resources Time Estimates Budget Copyright 2012 John Wiley 5-2 & Sons, Inc. Introduction Scope defines the work boundaries and deliverables of the project so what needs to get done, gets done
and only what needs to get done, gets done. is determined directly by the projects MOV. Defines all the work, activities, and deliverables that the project team much provide for the project to achieve its MOV Work Breakdown Structure a project management tool that provides a hierarchical structure that acts as a bridge, or link, between the projects scope and the detailed project plan that will be created. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5-3 Figure 5.1 The Triple Constraint
Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5-4 Scope Planning Why do we need scope planning? 5-5 Scope Planning Copyright 2012 John Wiley 5-6 & Sons, Inc.
Scope Boundary Work within the Scope Boundary Must Support the Projects MOV Work Outside of the Project Scope Copyright 2012 John Wiley 5-7 & Sons, Inc. Planning Scope Management The project team uses expert judgment and meetings to develop two important outputs
The scope management plan is a subsidiary part of the project management plan 8 Scope Management Plan Contents Example A Example B 9 Requirements Management Plan (RMP) conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or
result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification* *The PMBOK Guide, Fifth Edition RMP: Collecting Requirements For some IT projects, it is helpful to divide requirements development into categories called elicitation, analysis, specification, and validation http://www.certified-re.de/en/home.html 11 Relative Cost to Correct a Software
Requirement Defect 12 RMP: Methods for Collecting Requirements 13 Statistics on Requirements for Software Projects * 88% of the software projects involved enhancing existing products instead of creating new ones 86% said that customer satisfaction was the most important metric for measuring the success of development projects
83% of software development teams still use MS Office applications (e.g. Word and Excel) as their main tools to communicate requirements *John Simpson, 2011: The State of Requirements Management (2011). Improving User Input 15 Improving User Input 16 Reduce Incomplete and Changing Requirements
17 RMP: Managing Requirements during Project A requirements traceability matrix (RTM) is a table that lists requirements, various attributes of each requirement, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all requirements are addressed Another Example 18 SMP: Defining Scope Project scope statements should include at least:
19 Statement of Work Narrative description of the product, service, or information system. For internal projects, this is tied to the business need
For external projects, this would include specifications, quantities, quality standards, and performance requirements for prospective bidders. Scope Statement 1. Develop a proactive electronic commerce strategy that identifies the processes, products and services to be delivered through the World Wide Web. 2.
Develop an application system that supports all of the processes, products, and services identified in the electronic commerce strategy. 3. The application system must integrate with the banks existing enterprise resource planning system. 5-21 Out of Scope 1.
Technology and organizational assessment of the current environment 2. Customer resource management and data mining components 5-22 Project Scope Definition The scope boundary and scope statement provide a useful first step The projects scope must now be defined in more detail in terms of specific deliverables
that provide a basis for developing the projects work breakdown structure (WBS) Tools: 5-23 Project-Oriented vs. Product-Oriented Deliverables Project-Oriented Deliverables Product-Oriented Deliverables 5-24 Deliverable Definition Table (DDT)
Deliverable Structure Standards Approval Needed By Resources Required Business Case
Document As defined in the Project Methodology Project Sponsor Business Case Team, & office automation (OA) tools
Project Charter & Project Plan Document As defined in the Project Methodology Project Sponsor Project
manager, project sponsor & OA tools Current System Study Document As defined in the Project Methodology Project
Manager & Project Sponsor Systems analysts users, case tool and OA tools 5-25 Deliverable Structure Chart
Initialize & Conceptualize Business Case Analysis Strategic EC Plan Systems Proposal Electronic Commerce Banking Project Project Charter & Plan Project Charter & Project Plan Design
Logical Design Technical Design Execute & Control Construction EC Application System Close Project Final Project Report Formal Acceptance Testing Test Plan Test Results
Evaluate Project Success Project Evaluations Lessons Learned Implementation Documentation Training Program Conversion Plan Copyright 2012 John Wiley5-26 & Sons, Inc. Context Data Flow Diagram
Account Balance Info Account Balance Request Product/Service Request Customer Cu s Product tom er In
f o & Service Info Fund Transfer Request Fund Transfer Confirmation Promotion Info ber m u
0 E-Commerce Banking System N nt u o o c Inf Ac n
tio c a ns Tra ERP System Account Info Transaction Confirmation Usage Reports
Senior Management 5-27 Use Case Diagram 5-28 Project Scope Verification MOV Deliverables Quality Standards Milestones
Review and Acceptance 5-29 Sample Project Charter (partial) 30 Refining Project Scope 31 Example Scope Statements Example 1 Example 2
Example 3 32 Project Scope Statement - Exercise POQ Organization Online Shoe Store Review the exercise and answer the questions at the bottom of the sheet We will discuss each of these questions and then create the scope statement 33 Controlling Scope Scope control involves controlling changes to the
project scope 34 Controlling Scope Goals of scope control: 35 Scope Change Control Concerned with managing changes to the projects scope and to ensure that these changes are beneficial when they occur Mitigates:
Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Scope Schedule Resources Required Cost
Recommendation: Authorized By: Date: 5-37 Scope Change Request Log Request Number Request Title Date of Request
Requested By Priority (L, M, H) Authority to Approve Request Expected Response Date
Scope Change Approved? (Y/N) 5-38 Benefits of Scope Control Keeps the project manager in control of the project. Allows the project team to stay focused and on track 5-39
Avoiding Scope Creep Scope creep may occur as a result of: 40 Scope Creep To mitigate these types of issues, the proposed solutions are the following: 41 Best Practices - Avoiding Scope Problems 1. 2. 3.
4. 42 Scope Problems -> Project Failures A project scope that is too broad and grandiose can cause severe problems FoxMeyer Drug McDonalds 43 What is Project Scope Management? 44
PMI: Project Scope Management Processes Process Group Integration Management Process P1: Plan Scope Management P2: Collect Requirements Planning P3: Define Scope P4: Create WBS MC1: Validate Scope Monitoring and
Controlling MC2: Control Scope Major Output Scope Mgmt Plan Requirement Mgmt Plan Req. Documentation Req. Traceability Matrix Project Scope Stmt Project Docs Update Scope Baseline Project Docs Update Accept Deliverables Change Requests
Work Performance Info Change Requests Project Mgmt Plan Updates Org, Process Asset Updates 45 Scope Management Plan Collect Requirements Defining and documenting the customer, sponsor, or stakeholder needs and expectations. This may be a formal document. Define Scope A detailed description of the product, service, or information system to be designed, built and implemented. A detailed scope statement
defines what work will and will not be part of the project and will serve as a basis for all future project decisions Create the Work Breakdown Structure The decomposition or dividing of the major project deliverables (i.e., scope) into smaller and more manageable components Verify Scope Confirmation and formal acceptance that the projects scope is accurate, complete, and supports the projects MOV. The project team and sponsor must agree to all deliverables Control Scope Ensuring that controls are in place to manage proposed scope changes once the projects scope is set. Must be communicated to all project
stakeholders. 5-46 Scope Management Plan Collect Requirements Define Scope Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Verify Scope Control Scope Centers on defining and documenting the
stakeholders needs to properly manage expectations A detailed description of project and the product. It should define what work will and will not be included in the project. The decomposition or dividing of the major project deliverables into smaller and more manageable components. Confirmation and formal acceptance that projects scope is accurate, complete, and supports the projects goal. Ensuring that controls are in place to manage proposed scope changes one the projects scope is accepted. These procedures must be communicated and understood by all project
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