Infections in Pregnancy Dr Shahnaz Aram General Principles Pregnancy does not alter resistance to infection Severe infections have greater effects on the fetus Maternal antibodies cross the placenta and give passive immunity to the fetus Fetus becomes immunologically competent from the 14th week
Fetus and Infection Indirect effect - O2 transport, nutrient exchange Direct effect - invasion of placenta and infection of fetus Viruses more than bacteria rarely effect fetus unless maternal infection is severe exception: Rubella, CMV, Herpes Simplex Fetus and Infection Infections cause - miscarriage - congenital anomalies
- fetal hydrops - fetal death - preterm delivery - preterm rupture of the membranes Viral Diseases
Paramyxovirus Incubation - 10-14 days Respiratory droplet inoculation Fever, rash, cough, rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis and Kopliks spots Pneumonia (2nd bacterial) main cause of death Encephalomyolitis, SSPE, Hepatitis
Measles (Rubeola) No increased maternal or fetal deaths Risk of preterm delivery No specific syndrome Neonatal measles and pneumonia if active disease in mother Increased PNM in developing countries
Incubation - 14-21 days Respiratory droplet inoculation only modestly contagious Fever, rash (3 days), cough, arthralgias, post auricular and suboccipital lymphadenopathy Usually mild, overt clinical symptoms 50-75% of cases Encephalitis, bleeding diathesis & arthritis are rare complications Rubella and the Fetus Purpura, Splenomegaly, jaundice,
meningoencephalitis, thrombocytopenia are transient Congenital cataracts, Glaucoma, heart disease, deafness, microcephaly and mental retardation are permanent abnormalities Diabetes, thyroid abnormalities, precocious puberty & Progressive panencephalitis (late) Rubella Vaccination (95% seroconversion) @ 15 months and early adulthood Immune status checking in teenagers, precollege and pre-pregnancy Antenatal testing
Serology testing for presumed exposures (paired Sera) No in-utero therapy Parvovirus Human parvovirus B19 (DNA virus) - erythema infectiosum in childhood - chronic arthropathy - chronic bone marrow failure (immunodefic) - aplastic crisis (Sickle disaease) Incubation 4-14 days Respiratory droplet spread
High fever, Slapped cheek syndrome non specific rash, no symptoms Parvovirus and fetus Hydrops (anaemia, myocarditis) Adults 60% sero-positive 1/3 fetuses affected in acute infection
Fetal loss rare with appropriate treatment Assess serology - IgG, IgM, paired serology Serial ultrasound, intrauterine transfusion Varicella Varicella-Zoster virus (DNA) Incubation - 10-20 days
Respiratory droplet inoculation Fever, malaise, pruritic rash (maculopapular with vesicles) Pneumonia (+/- bacterial), encephalitis, myocarditis, pericarditis and adrenal insufficiency especially in adults Varicella and pregnancy Mild immunocompromise of pregnancy increases risk 10% develop pulmonary complications main cause of mortality Fetal effects Preterm delivery
Cataracts Horners Syndrome Early childhood Zoster Cytomegalovirus DNA virus Congenital infection - 1% 5-10% of those infected show clinical illness at birth Neonatal MR - 20-30% 90% of survivors get late complications 5-15% with no demonstrable disease at birth get some abnormality (deafness)
Venticulomegaly Cerebral atrophy Mental retardation Psychomotor delay Seizures Learning difficulties and language delay Chorioretinitis / Optic atrophy
Intracranial calcifications Long bone radiolucencies, dental abnormalities Pneumonitis CMV Congenital Infection Prolonged virus shedding No vaccine No treatment Risk group advice Herpes Simplex Disseminated disease in pregnant woman death from hepatitis, encephalitis Miscarriage (severe disease)
No congenital syndrome known Intrapartum infection disseminated disease - chorioretinitis, meningitis, encephalitis, mental retardation, seizures and death Primary infection >>>secondary infection HSV II - 75%; HSV I - 25% cases Hepatitis B
Intrauterine infection - 5% Intrapartum infection - 95% Congenital infection - 90% chronic carriers About 1% mothers are potential risks for their newborns Newborns should receive passive (HBIg) and active immunization (vaccine x 3 doses) - protective in over 90% of cases Hepatitis C
Risk of transmission to fetus 6-30% Increased if other infections such as HIV No treatment Value of C Section is uncertain Avoid invasive procedures HIV Infection rates variable Risk of vertical transmission 20-40%, mostly peri-partum
Screening and treatment can almost completely reduce vertical transmission C Section reduces risk of transmission x 4fold Viral counts <1000 - negligible risk to fetus Bacterial Infections
Bacteruria* Vaginal infections (BV, TV, Candida) Group B Streptococci* Gonorrhoea* Chlamydia* Toxoplasmosis* Listeria Bacteruria
Asymptomatic 5-8% of all pregnancies (2% Non-preg) Urinary stasis, tract dilatation 30% symptomatic UTI (Pyelonephritis) Diagnosis Treatment Subsequent care (MSU v Prophylaxis)
Group B Streptococci 25% women are carriers 50% of babies born will be colonized 1-2% will have Grp B Strep infection 1:1000 babies Pneumonia (early), Meninigitis (Late)
Screening v Risk factor prophylaxis Gonorrhoea Neissseria Gonorrhoea (1-6% pop) Pre-term labour, PPROM, Chorioamniionitis, Endometritis Gonococcal opthalmia neonatorum (40%) 80% asymptomatic Screening needed? Cephtriaxone IM stat Chlamydia 5-7% reproductive population
Pre-term labour, PPROM, Chorioamniionitis, Endometritis Conjunctivitis (18-50%), Pneumonia (18%) Most are asymptomatic Screening needed Azithromycin 1 gram stat Syphilis
T.Pallidum <1:1000 pregnant women Can infect trans placenta from 15th week Second stage by birth if not treated Screening VDRL, RPR Diagnostic tests TPI, FTA-Abs High dose Penicillin's Toxoplasmosis
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