India

India

India Colonial Rule & the Nationalist Challenge in India, 1919 1947 Post World War I Indias Contribution to WWI Over 1 million Indians fought for the British. Indians were certain that they would be given more say in the governing of India due to their massive contribution to the war. The Defense of India Act suspended civil liberties until the end of the war.

Lucknow Pact was established by Muslims during the war: Aimed to create a new India with Dominion status. Dealt with problems in government structure. Montagu Declaration gave Indians greater control in government: Moderate Indians supported this act as a step forward. However, radical parties were unsatisfied as they thought they would have been given home rule. Following the riots caused by the Montagu Declaration, the Rowlatt Acts were drafted. Rowlatt Acts Cause Increased dissatisfaction after WWI. Unrest after Montagu Declaration showed no immediate home rule. British government was concerned they would not be able to control population.

Action Gave large amount of power to the government. Suspects could be detained in jail for up to 2 years without charge. Censorship was increased. Established on March 1919. Result Rowlatt Acts proved the British had no plans to relinquish control of India. All leaders and parties opposed the acts. Hartals and strikes began, many Indians began to fast and closed their businesses. Indians thought British would offer change and greater autonomy, the Rowlatt Act proved them wrong. Amritsar Massacre

Cause Non-violence was ignored by Indians during the riots sprouting from Rowlatt Acts. The Governor of Punjab saw the riots as an attempt to overthrow British Rule. Action General Dyer declared that assemblies were not allowed on the 13th and announced a curfew. 2500 Indians met in Jallianwala Bagh, at the start of a religious festival. Dyers troops opened fire on the 14th April 1919, killing 400 and wounded 1200. Result Widespread outrage was caused by such inhumane and

brutal acts. Dyer was reprimanded by the British government. Turned Gandhi completely against the British. Government of India Act Cause Emerged from the Montagu Declaration. It was aimed to introduce a new age of co-operation between the Indians and British. Action

Result Still no home rule for the Indian people. Insufficient funding meant that most of the local councils could not operate. Tried to increase Indian influence. Only 3 percent of the population could vote. Established in 1919. Dyarchy was established. More seats for minorities, (Muslims, Untouchables, etc.) Allowed 3% of the population to vote. British retained power for defense, foreign relations and taxation. Local councils dealt with healthcare, education, etc. Gandhi & Non-Cooperation Gandhis Background

Studied law in Britain, after returning to India, he had a career as a barrister, but was relatively uneventful. Went to South Africa in 1893 and experienced the harsh treatment that the Europeans gave. Becomes spokesperson for Indians in South Africa. He developed satyagraha, the belief in peaceful civil disobedience. Returned to India in 1915 and was invited to assist the Indian Congress Party.

He saw that many wanted to live free of British rule, began to live the lifestyle of a peasant. In 1918-19, when the leader of Congress Bal Tilak, visited Britain, Gandhi emerged as a leading spokesperson for the party. Gandhi became increasingly radical after brutal events such as Rowlatt Acts and the Amritsar Massacre. Gandhi persuaded Congress to demand swaraj, which is home rule. He also persuaded Indians to follow the idea of swadeshi, to reject everything British. Civil Disobedience In 1920, Gandhi introduces non-cooperation to Congress at an annual meeting.

He hoped that the British government would break down. Satyagraha suggested that: Boycott all elections and exams. Refuse to buy foreign goods. Refuse to pay taxes. Lawyers to boycott courts. Not allow children to attend British-run schools. The boycott of foreign goods and elections were fairly successful. Failure of satyagraha The British ignored most of the non-cooperation protests as they had no real impact on the government. Some Indians used violence, which caused satyagraha to fail:

The Bombay hartal ended with 53 dead and riots. The British intervened and arrested Congress members. 22 policemen were killed in 1922, Gandhi called off the campaign but was arrested. He served 2 years in prison. After he was released, he set up an ashram in Gujarat, where he concentrated on working among villagers. He also worked with the Untouchables. Young Hooligans Two young men lobbied on the All Indian Congress Committee for renewed action towards independence. Two of the three young men were Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandras Bose. Gandhi labeled them as hooligans because they supported socialism, a dangerous and radical idea in Gandhis perspective.

Developments from 1927 Simon Commission A commission sent to review the success of the Government of India Act in 1919. The review was brought forward to 1927. The seven man commission was headed by Sir John Simon, there was no Indian representation. The Indians were angered by the commission as it showed that the British Government were unwilling to let Indians have a say.

It was met by huge, organized protests in Bombay. Congress and the Muslim League boycotted it, however the Sikhs, AngloIndians and Untouchables helped give evidence. A report issued in 1930 supported abolishing the Dyarchy and establishing a federal India, however, no changes were made in accordance to this report in the central government. Nehru Report The Nehru Report was the Indian response to the Simon Commission. It was prepared in 1928 by Motilal Nehru and his son Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru Report demanded Dominion status from the British government.

This would remove provincial power, creating a Hindu majority within the government. Jinnah and the Muslim League were concerned that a Hindu dominant government would be biased. At the same time, the two young hooligans put forward a demand for the British to leave India before December 31 1929. Their demands were not met, and a new campaign of satyagraha began. Gandhi began his satyagraha campaign in March. The Salt March Cause In response to the Simon Commission. A display of satyagraha. Action

Result Nehru and Gandhi were arrested and imprisoned in May, leading to widespread protests. 60,000 congress members imprisoned. Still some violence. Began to subside by 1930. He ended the campaign when he was invited to attend the Round Table Conferences in 1931. Began in March 1929. Use of the symbolic taking of salt to break the Salt Law. 386 km from Ahmedabad to Dandi on the coast. The press and thousands of Indians followed Gandhi.

Untouchables also joined the march. Peace kept at all times. Round Table Conferences RTC1 November 1930 January 1931 Congress refused to attend as many members were still in jail. No final agreements were reached due to Congress absence. RTC2 September 1931 December 1931 Gandhi attended, claiming only Congress represented India. Upon his return, Gandhi was arrested and Congress was outlawed. British only wished to work with Indian groups willing to make change. In August 1932, the Communal Award was proposed, which guaranteed separate seats in any Indian Assembly for minorities. Gandhi forced the Untouchables to reject the award by fasting.

No agreement was reached by the groups. RTC3 November 1932 December 1932 Labor Party and Indian Congress refused to attend. Agreements proposed took the form of Government of India Government of India Act 1935 Enacted in 1935. Mixture of suggestions from the Simon Commission and the Round Table Conferences: Viceroy still had a lot of power, but was advised by an Indian executive committee. Dyarchy was abolished.

Divided into 11 provinces and the provincial governments were given more power. Number of electorates increased to 36 million, separate electorates for minorities. Burma was separated from India. Reactions to the Act was mostly negative: Congress rejected the act because it wanted swaraj and it disliked the special allowances for minorities. Muslim League rejected the act because not enough power was given to the Muslims and Hindus would not guarantee the rights of minorities. Nehru led the Congress election campaign, winning most of the seats that were not reserved for the minorities. Nehru replaced Gandhi as leader of congress. Political divisions grew. Jinnah & Muslim League

Born in 1876 in Karachi. Became a barrister in London in 1895. Returned to India and joined Congress in 1896. Joined the Muslim League in 1913. Broke with Congress in 1920 after disagreements with Gandhi. Issued his 14 points in 1929. Resigned from Congress after disagreements over non-violence policy in 1930. 1930-34 he exiled in Britain. In 1934 he became leader of the Muslim League. In 1947-48 he became Governor-General in Pakistan, Muslim League set up in 1906. Supporters were Muslims who were scared of Hindu domination. Initially it concentrated on protecting Muslim liberties and rights and promoting an understanding between the Muslims and Hindus. After political and religious differences with Congress, in 1929, Jinnah put forward his 13 points. Muslim representation should not be less than one-third in the central

legislature. Representation of minorities should be by separate electorates. Divisions grew further with the Government of India Act 1935. Impact of WWII Declaration of War Reactions of Congress: Mixed feelings, objected strongly to being involved in a war without being consulted. Gandhi wanted the British government to negotiate with Hitler. Nehru was anti-fascist and believed that India should support Britain. Stating that support would come if swaraj was granted. Congress began a campaign of civil disobedience in July 1940 when the Viceroy refused to create a National Government in India. Within weeks

almost 2,000 congress members were imprisoned. Reactions of Muslim League: Supported Britains declaration of war on Germany. Congress removed itself from the government. March 1940, Jinnah spoke to about 100,000 Muslims at a meeting in Lahore. He spoke of a Muslim state called Pakistan. Gandhi called it the vivisection of India and that partition would be suicide for India. Quit India Campaign

Gandhis response to the British decision was launching another satyagraha campaign in August 1942. Congress must win freedom or be wiped out in the effort. British administration responded by: Placing Gandhi, Nehru and other leaders of Congress in jail and held until 1944. The Congress Party was declared illegal, its funds were frozen, offices were raided and documents were seized. The governments actions caused uproar and demonstrations all over India. Riots and violence ensued. Caused damage in police offices, government buildings, railway lines and communications posts. Stopped supplies from going to Burma. More than 1000 killed and 3000 injured. 35,000 troops diverted to support the police. Suppressed the campaign by the end of the year. Quit India Campaign had failed and Congress realized that the army had remained loyal to the British.

Cripps Mission British had to secure the loyalty of the Indians to defend against the Japanese in Burma. They sent Stafford Cripps to propose to the Indian leaders Gandhi and Nehru. Cripps Proposed Full dominion status and the right to secede when the war ends. Any province that did not want to join the new India would be allowed to be independent. Indian people would elect an assembly which would draft her

constitution. All groups to unify, headed by Viceroy for the duration of the war. Gandhi and Nehru refused as they wanted immediate independence and did not agree with the principle that provinces could become independent. They felt that they represented the entire India. Jinnah agreed as they wanted a Muslim state. After Congresss rejection, the British government stated that it would retain control of India until the end of the war. Impact on politics Chandra Bose was an ultra-nationalist that organized the Indian National Army, however was suppressed by the British. He died in 1945. The war gave the Muslim League the change to put forward the idea for a

Muslim state. Muslim Leagues cooperation with the British compared to Congress undermining the war effort gave them support. Muslim League grew in membership, and in 1945 won 90 percent of the Muslim seats. Congress saw that it did not have the power to overthrow Britain. The Growth of Communal Violence 1945 - 47 Problems in Britain

The government in Britain found itself economically exhausted. Spent more than 1 billion GBP on India during the conflict. Other wartime spending had led to debts of almost 3 billion GBP. People questioned whether Britain could continue to run a huge empire. India was no longer a place which imported huge amounts of British goods. The Simla Conference: The new Viceroy, Wavell met with Indian leaders to discuss the constitutional settlement. An executive council would be established to ensure balance between the two religions. Revised provincial and national assemblies. A specific number of seats for each religious group. The conference broke down after the two groups could not choose the way in which members would be chosen. Congress had good relations with the Labour party in Britain. Cabinet Mission

Comprised of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander. Cabinet Mission proposed: Immediate dominion status for India with protection for Muslims. Central government responsible for foreign policy and defense. Provincial governments responsible for education, health, and public works. Both the Congress and Muslim League accepted the proposals. Congress agreed with the united India. Muslim League saw that there was basis of its own state within India. Elections for the new Assembly were held. Congress won 205 seats.

Muslim League won 73. After the majority was announced, Nehru announced that Congress was no longer bound by the Cabinet Missions proposals. Direct Action Events: Launched in August 1946 Peaceful demonstrations and hartals to pressure British and Congress. Violence quickly grew, leaving 5,000 dead, 20,000 injured and 100,000 homeless. The British were unable to halt the violence. Gandhi If India wants a bloodbath, she can have it. Jinnah Pakistan is worth the sacrifice of 10 million Muslims. We shall

have India divided or we shall have India destroyed. Effects of Direct Action were: Wavell persuaded Nehru to become Prime Minister of India. Then Wavell was succeeded by Lord Mountbatten. Fixed date for British withdrawal from India. Attlee announced they would leave no later than 30 June 1948. Independence & Partition Work of Mountbatten Lord Mountbatten was appointed Viceroy of India in February 1947.

British PM told Mountbatten that India must not be partitioned. After spending a few weeks in India, he developed good relations with Congress, however his relations with Jinnah were not as good. He was convinced that a united India was impossible. Religious partition. Communal violence of 1946 had left bitter scars. 28 August 1947 was set as the day of independence. The Partition Plan drawn up in May 1947: Two countries would be created India and Pakistan A boundary commission was established. East Pakistan separated from Pakistan by 1000 miles of Indian territory. The Boundary Commission left: 5,000,000 Muslims in India 5,000,000 Hindus in Pakistan Results of Independence

Millions had to move across the border in the summer of 1947. 600,000+ killed in Punjab alone. More than 1 million killed in total. Independence was granted on 14 August 1947. Jinnah became Governor-General of Pakistan. Nehru became Prime Minister of India. Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948.

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